Clostridium perfringens type C necrotic enteritis in pigs: diagnosis, pathogenesis, and prevention.

Posthaus, Horst; Kittl, Sonja; Tarek, Basma; Bruggisser, Julia (2020). Clostridium perfringens type C necrotic enteritis in pigs: diagnosis, pathogenesis, and prevention. Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation, 32(2), pp. 203-212. Sage 10.1177/1040638719900180

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Clostridium perfringens type C causes severe and lethal necrotic enteritis (NE) in newborn piglets. NE is diagnosed through a combination of pathology and bacteriologic investigations. The hallmark lesion of NE is deep, segmental mucosal necrosis with marked hemorrhage of the small intestine. C. perfringens can be isolated from intestinal samples in acute cases but it is more challenging to identify pathogenic strains in subacute-to-chronic cases. Toxinotyping or genotyping is required to differentiate C. perfringens type C from commensal type A strains. Recent research has extended our knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease, although important aspects remain to be determined. The pathogenesis involves rapid overgrowth of C. perfringens type C in the small intestine, inhibition of beta-toxin (CPB) degradation by trypsin inhibitors in the colostrum of sows, and most likely initial damage to the small intestinal epithelial barrier. CPB itself acts primarily on vascular endothelial cells in the mucosa and can also inhibit platelet function. Prevention of the disease is achieved by immunization of pregnant sows with C. perfringens type C toxoid vaccines, combined with proper sanitation on farms. For the implementation of prevention strategies, it is important to differentiate between disease-free and pathogen-free status of a herd. The latter is more challenging to maintain, given that C. perfringens type C can persist for a long time in the environment and in the intestinal tract of adult animals and thus can be distributed via clinically and bacteriologically inapparent carrier animals.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Animal Pathology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Research Foci > Host-Pathogen Interaction
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology

UniBE Contributor:

Posthaus, Horst; Kittl, Sonja; Sayed, Basma Tarek Mohammed Amin and Bruggisser, Julia

Subjects:

600 Technology > 630 Agriculture
500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology

ISSN:

1943-4936

Publisher:

Sage

Language:

English

Submitter:

Achim Braun Parham

Date Deposited:

23 Mar 2020 11:38

Last Modified:

23 Mar 2020 11:38

Publisher DOI:

10.1177/1040638719900180

PubMed ID:

31955664

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Clostridium perfringens type C necrotic enteritis pigs

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.142184

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/142184

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