Pebbles versus planetesimals: the case of Trappist-1

Coleman, G. A. L.; Leleu, A.; Alibert, Y.; Benz, W. (2019). Pebbles versus planetesimals: the case of Trappist-1. Astronomy and astrophysics, 631, A7. EDP Sciences 10.1051/0004-6361/201935922

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We present a study into the formation of planetary systems around low mass stars similar to Trappist-1, through the accretion of either planetesimals or pebbles. The aim is to determine if the currently observed systems around low mass stars could favour one scenario over the other. To determine these differences, we ran numerous N-body simulations, coupled to a thermally evolving viscous 1D disc model, and including prescriptions for planet migration, photoevaporation, and pebble and planetesimal dynamics. We mainly examine the differences between the pebble and planetesimal accretion scenarios, but we also look at the influences of disc mass, size of planetesimals, and the percentage of solids locked up within pebbles. When comparing the resulting planetary systems to Trappist-1, we find that a wide range of initial conditions for both the pebble and planetesimal accretion scenarios can form planetary systems similar to Trappist-1, in terms of planet mass, periods, and resonant configurations. Typically these planets formed exterior to the water iceline and migrated in resonant convoys into the inner region close to the central star. When comparing the planetary systems formed through pebble accretion to those formed through planetesimal accretion, we find a large number of similarities, including average planet masses, eccentricities, inclinations, and period ratios. One major difference between the two scenarios was that of the water content of the planets. When including the effects of ablation and full recycling of the planets’ envelope with the disc, the planets formed through pebble accretion were extremely dry, whilst those formed through planetesimal accretion were extremely wet. If the water content is not fully recycled and instead falls to the planets’ core, or if ablation of the water is neglected, then the planets formed through pebble accretion are extremely wet, similar to those formed through planetesimal accretion. Should the water content of the Trappist-1 planets be determined accurately, this could point to a preferred formation pathway for planetary systems, or to specific physics that may be at play.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Space Research and Planetary Sciences > Theoretical Astrophysics and Planetary Science (TAPS)
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Space Research and Planetary Sciences
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
10 Strategic Research Centers > Center for Space and Habitability (CSH)
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > NCCR PlanetS

UniBE Contributor:

Coleman, Gavin; Leleu, Adrien Sebastien; Alibert, Yann and Benz, Willy

Subjects:

500 Science
500 Science > 520 Astronomy
500 Science > 530 Physics
600 Technology > 620 Engineering

ISSN:

0004-6361

Publisher:

EDP Sciences

Language:

English

Submitter:

Janine Jungo

Date Deposited:

21 Apr 2020 13:07

Last Modified:

26 Apr 2020 02:47

Publisher DOI:

10.1051/0004-6361/201935922

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.142986

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/142986

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