ExoMol molecular line lists – XXXIII. The spectrum of Titanium Oxide

McKemmish, Laura K; Masseron, Thomas; Hoeijmakers, H. Jens; Pérez-Mesa, Víctor; Grimm, Simon L.; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Tennyson, Jonathan (2019). ExoMol molecular line lists – XXXIII. The spectrum of Titanium Oxide. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 488(2), pp. 2836-2854. Oxford University Press 10.1093/mnras/stz1818

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Accurate line lists are crucial for correctly modelling a variety of astrophysical phenomena, including stellar photospheres and the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. This paper presents a new line database TOTO for the main isotopologues of titanium oxide (TiO): ⁴⁶Ti¹⁶O⁠, ⁴⁷Ti¹⁶O⁠, ⁴⁸Ti¹⁶O⁠, ⁴⁹Ti¹⁶O⁠, and ⁵⁰Ti¹⁶O⁠. The ⁴⁸Ti¹⁶O line list contains transitions with wave-numbers up to 30 000 cm⁻¹, i.e. longwards of 0.33 μm. The TOTO line list includes all dipole-allowed transitions between 13 low-lying electronic states (X³Δ, a¹Δ, d¹Σ+, E³Π, A³Φ, B³Π, C³Δ, b¹Π, c¹Φ, f1Δ, e¹Σ+). Ab initio potential energy curves (PECs) are computed at the icMRCI level and combined with spin–orbit and other coupling curves. These PECs and couplings are iteratively refined to match known empirical energy levels. Accurate line intensities are generated using ab initio dipole moment curves. The TOTO line lists are appropriate for temperatures below 5000 K and contain 30 million transitions for ⁴⁸Ti¹⁶O⁠; it is made available in electronic form via the CDS data centre and via www.exomol.com. Tests of the line lists show greatly improved agreement with observed spectra for objects such as M-dwarfs GJ876 and GL581.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
10 Strategic Research Centers > Center for Space and Habitability (CSH)
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > NCCR PlanetS

UniBE Contributor:

Hoeijmakers, Herman Jens, Grimm, Simon Lukas


500 Science
500 Science > 520 Astronomy
500 Science > 530 Physics




Oxford University Press




Janine Jungo

Date Deposited:

21 Apr 2020 14:14

Last Modified:

02 Mar 2023 23:33

Publisher DOI:






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