Germline Elongator mutations in Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma.

Waszak, Sebastian M; Robinson, Giles W; Gudenas, Brian L; Smith, Kyle S; Forget, Antoine; Kojic, Marija; Garcia-Lopez, Jesus; Hadley, Jennifer; Hamilton, Kayla V; Indersie, Emilie; Buchhalter, Ivo; Kerssemakers, Jules; Jäger, Natalie; Sharma, Tanvi; Rausch, Tobias; Kool, Marcel; Sturm, Dominik; Jones, David T W; Vasilyeva, Aksana; Tatevossian, Ruth G; ... (2020). Germline Elongator mutations in Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma. Nature, 580(7803), pp. 396-401. Macmillan Journals Ltd. 10.1038/s41586-020-2164-5

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Cancer genomics has revealed many genes and core molecular processes that contribute to human malignancies, but the genetic and molecular bases of many rare cancers remains unclear. Genetic predisposition accounts for 5 to 10% of cancer diagnoses in children1,2, and genetic events that cooperate with known somatic driver events are poorly understood. Pathogenic germline variants in established cancer predisposition genes have been recently identified in 5% of patients with the malignant brain tumour medulloblastoma3. Here, by analysing all protein-coding genes, we identify and replicate rare germline loss-of-function variants across ELP1 in 14% of paediatric patients with the medulloblastoma subgroup Sonic Hedgehog (MBSHH). ELP1 was the most common medulloblastoma predisposition gene and increased the prevalence of genetic predisposition to 40% among paediatric patients with MBSHH. Parent-offspring and pedigree analyses identified two families with a history of paediatric medulloblastoma. ELP1-associated medulloblastomas were restricted to the molecular SHHα subtype4 and characterized by universal biallelic inactivation of ELP1 owing to somatic loss of chromosome arm 9q. Most ELP1-associated medulloblastomas also exhibited somatic alterations in PTCH1, which suggests that germline ELP1 loss-of-function variants predispose individuals to tumour development in combination with constitutive activation of SHH signalling. ELP1 is the largest subunit of the evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which catalyses translational elongation through tRNA modifications at the wobble (U34) position5,6. Tumours from patients with ELP1-associated MBSHH were characterized by a destabilized Elongator complex, loss of Elongator-dependent tRNA modifications, codon-dependent translational reprogramming, and induction of the unfolded protein response, consistent with loss of protein homeostasis due to Elongator deficiency in model systems7-9. Thus, genetic predisposition to proteome instability may be a determinant in the pathogenesis of paediatric brain cancers. These results support investigation of the role of protein homeostasis in other cancer types and potential for therapeutic interference.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Paediatric Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

UniBE Contributor:

Kühni, Claudia

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services

ISSN:

0028-0836

Publisher:

Macmillan Journals Ltd.

Language:

English

Submitter:

Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

23 Apr 2020 19:52

Last Modified:

27 Apr 2020 15:34

Publisher DOI:

10.1038/s41586-020-2164-5

PubMed ID:

32296180

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.143476

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/143476

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