Effects of age and sex on clinical high-risk for psychosis in the community

Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Schimmelmann, Benno G.; Flückiger, Rahel; Michel, Chantal (2020). Effects of age and sex on clinical high-risk for psychosis in the community. World Journal of Psychiatry, 10(5), pp. 101-124. Baishideng Publishing Group Inc 10.5498/wjp.v10.i5.101

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BACKGROUND Recent reports of both heightened prevalence rates and limited clinical relevance of clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria and their relevant symptoms in children and adolescents indicate an important role of neurodevelopment in the early detection of psychoses. Furthermore, sex effects in CHR symptoms have been reported, though studies were inconclusive. As sex also impacts on neurodevelopment, we expected that sex might have an additional contribution to age in the prevalence and clinical relevance of CHR symptoms and criteria. AIM To investigate age and sex effects on CHR criteria and symptoms and their association with psychosocial impairment and mental disorder. METHODS In this cross-sectional cohort study, n = 2916 8- to 40-year-olds, randomly drawn from the population register of the Swiss canton Bern, were assessed in semi-structured interviews by phone or face-to-face for CHR symptoms and criteria using the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument in its child and youth, and adult version, respectively. Furthermore, social and occupational functioning and DSM-IV axis I disorders were assessed. Simple and interaction effects of age and sex on CHR symptoms and criteria, and interaction effects of age, sex, and CHR symptoms and criteria on presentation of functional impairment and of non-psychotic disorder were investigated using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS Altogether, 542 (18.6%) participants reported any CHR symptom; of these, 261 (9.0%) participants reported any one of the 11 criteria relevant cognitive and perceptual basic symptoms, and 381 (13.1%) any one of the five attenuated or transient psychotic symptoms (attenuated psychotic symptoms/brief intermittent psychotic symptoms). Fewer participants met any one of the CHR criteria (n = 82, 2.8%) or any one of the three recently recommended CHR criteria (n = 38, 1.3%). Both age and sex were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with CHR symptoms and criteria, mostly by younger age and female sex. Though slightly differing between symptom groups, age thresholds were detected around the turn from adolescence to adulthood; they were highest for cognitive basic symptoms and CHR criteria. With the exception of the infrequent speech disorganization attenuated psychotic symptom, the interaction of age with CHR symptoms and criteria predicted functional impairment; whereas, independent of each other, sex and CHR symptoms mostly predicted mental disorders. CONCLUSION Age and sex differentially impact on CHR symptoms and criteria; these differences may support better understanding of causal pathways. Thus, future CHR studies should consider effects of sex and age.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy > Research Division

UniBE Contributor:

Schimmelmann, Benno Karl Edgar; Flückiger, Rahel and Michel, Chantal

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

2220-3206

Publisher:

Baishideng Publishing Group Inc

Language:

English

Submitter:

Chantal Michel

Date Deposited:

26 May 2020 10:59

Last Modified:

26 May 2020 10:59

Publisher DOI:

10.5498/wjp.v10.i5.101

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/144068

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