Commissioning and Quality Assurance of a novel solution for respiratory-gated PBS proton therapy based on optical tracking of surface markers.

Fattori, Giovanni; Hrbacek, Jan; Regele, Harald; Bula, Christian; Mayor, Alexandre; Danuser, Stefan; Oxley, David C; Rechsteiner, Urs; Grossmann, Martin; Via, Riccardo; Böhlen, Till T; Bolsi, Alessandra; Walser, Marc; Togno, Michele; Colvill, Emma; Lempen, Daniel; Weber, Damien C.; Lomax, Antony J; Safai, Sairos (2020). Commissioning and Quality Assurance of a novel solution for respiratory-gated PBS proton therapy based on optical tracking of surface markers. (In Press). Zeitschrift für medizinische Physik Elsevier, Urban & Fischer 10.1016/j.zemedi.2020.07.001

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We present the commissioning and quality assurance of our clinical protocol for respiratory gating in pencil beam scanning proton therapy for cancer patients with moving targets. In a novel approach, optical tracking has been integrated in the therapy workflow and used to monitor respiratory motion from multiple surrogates, applied on the patients' chest. The gating system was tested under a variety of experimental conditions, specific to proton therapy, to evaluate reaction time and reproducibility of dose delivery control. The system proved to be precise in the application of beam gating and allowed the mitigation of dose distortions even for large (1.4cm) motion amplitudes, provided that adequate treatment windows were selected. The total delivered dose was not affected by the use of gating, with measured integral error within 0.15cGy. Analysing high-resolution images of proton transmission, we observed negligible discrepancies in the geometric location of the dose as a function of the treatment window, with gamma pass rate greater than 95% (2%/2mm) compared to stationary conditions. Similarly, pass rate for the latter metric at the 3%/3mm level was observed above 97% for clinical treatment fields, limiting residual movement to 3mm at end-exhale. These results were confirmed in realistic clinical conditions using an anthropomorphic breathing phantom, reporting a similarly high 3%/3mm pass rate, above 98% and 94%, for regular and irregular breathing, respectively. Finally, early results from periodic QA tests of the optical tracker have shown a reliable system, with small variance observed in static and dynamic measurements.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Radiation Oncology

UniBE Contributor:

Weber, Damien Charles


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Elsevier, Urban & Fischer




Beatrice Scheidegger

Date Deposited:

03 Sep 2020 11:46

Last Modified:

03 Sep 2020 11:55

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Commissioning Moving tumours Optical tracking Proton therapy Quality assurance Respiratory gating Surface markers




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