COVID-19 in Healthcare Workers: A Living Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prevalence, Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes.

Gómez-Ochoa, Sergio Alejandro; Franco, Oscar H.; Rojas, Lyda Z; Raguindin, Peter Francis; Roa-Díaz, Zayne Milena; Minder Wyssmann, Beatrice; Guevara, Sandra Lucrecia Romero; Echeverría, Luis Eduardo; Glisic, Marija; Muka, Taulant (2021). COVID-19 in Healthcare Workers: A Living Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prevalence, Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes. American journal of epidemiology, 190(1), pp. 161-175. Oxford University Press 10.1093/aje/kwaa191

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Health care workers (HCW) are at the frontline response to the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), being at a higher risk of acquiring the disease, and subsequently, exposing patients and colleagues. Searches in eight bibliographic databases were performed to systematically review the evidence on the prevalence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among HCW. Ninety-seven studies (All published in 2020), including 230,398 HCW, met the inclusion criteria. From the screened HCW using RT-PCR and the presence of antibodies, the estimated prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 11% (95%CI; 7%-15%) and 7% (95% CI; 4%-11%), respectively. The most frequently affected personnel were the nurses (48%. 95%CI; 41%-56%), while most of the COVID-19 positive medical personnel were working in hospitalization/non-emergency wards during the screening (43%, 95%CI;28%-59%). Anosmia, fever and myalgia were identified as the only symptoms associated with HCW SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Among RT-PCR positive HCW, 40% (95%CI;17%-65%) did not show symptoms at the time of diagnosis. Finally, 5% (95%CI;3%-8%) of the COVID-19 positive HCW developed severe clinical complications, and 0.5% (95% CI; 0.02%-1.3%) died. HCW suffer a significant burden from COVID-19, with HCW working in hospitalization/non-emergency wards and nurses being the most infected personnel.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


13 Central Units > Administrative Director's Office > University Library of Bern
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

UniBE Contributor:

Franco Duran, Oscar Horacio, Raguindin, Peter Francis, Roa Diaz, Zayne Milena, Minder, Beatrice, Glisic, Marija, Muka, Taulant


000 Computer science, knowledge & systems > 020 Library & information sciences
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services




Oxford University Press




Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

09 Sep 2020 20:29

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:40

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

2019-nCoV COVID-19 Health Care Workers Medical Workers SARS-CoV-2




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