Pulmonary Dysfunction after Treatment for Childhood Cancer: Comparing Multiple-Breath Washout with Spirometry.

Schindera, Christina; Usemann, Jakob; Zuercher, Simeon Joel; Jung, Ruedi; Kasteler, Rahel; Frauchiger, Bettina; Naumann, Geraldine; Rueegg, Corina Silvia; Latzin, Philipp; Kuehni, Claudia Elisabeth; von der Weid, Nicolas Xavier (2021). Pulmonary Dysfunction after Treatment for Childhood Cancer: Comparing Multiple-Breath Washout with Spirometry. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 18(2), pp. 281-289. American Thoracic Society 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202003-211OC

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RATIONALE

Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of long-term pulmonary dysfunction, but we lack sensitive outcome measures to detect early pulmonary damage.

OBJECTIVE

To assess the ability of nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2MBW) for detecting pulmonary dysfunction compared to spirometry in long-term survivors of childhood cancer.

METHODS

We analyzed cross-sectional data from long-term (≥ 5-year) survivors of childhood cancer, aged ≤16 years at cancer diagnosis, ≥16 years at study (assessment period 2015-2019). We categorized survivors by risk: high risk for those having had pulmotoxic chemotherapy, chest radiation, thoracic surgery, and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and standard risk for other cancer therapies. Primary outcomes were the global lung clearance index (LCI) and acinar ventilation inhomogeneity index (SACIN) from N2MBW, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and functional vital capacity (FVC) from spirometry. We calculated z scores for N2MBW and spirometry parameters and compared pulmonary dysfunction between risk groups. Pulmonary dysfunction was defined as z score +1.64 for N2MBW and -1.64 for spirometry.

RESULTS

We studied 46 survivors, median age at diagnosis 10 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4-14), median age at study 30 years (IQR 25-40). Thirty-seven percent were at high risk and 63% at standard risk for pulmonary dysfunction. LCI and SACIN were higher in the high risk group compared to the standard risk group (mean LCI z scores 2.09, standard deviation [SD] 2.39 vs 0.95, SD 2.81; mean SACIN z scores 2.45, SD 3.29 vs 0.65, SD 2.79). FEV1 and FVC were lower in the high risk compared to the standard risk group (mean FEV1 z scores -0.94, SD 1.39 vs -0.10, SD 1.07; mean FVC z scores -1.14, SD 1.23 vs 0.15, SD 1.61). Overall, LCI, SACIN, FEV1, and FVC were abnormal in 60%, 53%, 33%, and 33% of high risk patients compared to 23%, 21%, 0%, and 4% of standard risk patients.

CONCLUSIONS

N2MBW identified more cases of pulmonary dysfunction in long-term survivors of childhood cancer than spirometry, even in patients who had cancer therapy not specifically known as being pulmotoxic. N2MBW could be a complementary screening tool for early pulmonary damage after treatment for childhood cancer. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02730767).

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Paediatric Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Paediatric Medicine > Paediatric Pneumology

UniBE Contributor:

Schindera, Christina; Usemann, Jakob; Kasteler, Rahel; Frauchiger, Bettina; Latzin, Philipp and Kühni, Claudia

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services

ISSN:

2329-6933

Publisher:

American Thoracic Society

Language:

English

Submitter:

Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

09 Sep 2020 21:09

Last Modified:

03 Feb 2021 01:31

Publisher DOI:

10.1513/AnnalsATS.202003-211OC

PubMed ID:

32877212

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.146405

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/146405

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