GNSS scale determination using calibrated receiver and Galileo satellite antenna patterns

Villiger, Arturo; Dach, Rolf; Schaer, Stefan; Prange, Lars; Zimmermann, Florian; Kuhlmann, Heiner; Wübbena, Gerhard; Schmitz, Martin; Beutler, Gerhard; Jäggi, Adrian (2020). GNSS scale determination using calibrated receiver and Galileo satellite antenna patterns. Journal of geodesy, 94(9) Springer-Verlag 10.1007/s00190-020-01417-0

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The reference frame of a global terrestrial network is defined by the origin, the orientation and the scale. The origin of the ITRF2014 is defined by the ILRS long-term solution, the orientation by no-net rotation conditions w.r.t. the previous reference frame (ITRF2008), and the scale by the mean values from global VLBI and SLR solution series (Altamimi et al. in J Geophys Res Solid Earth 121:6109–6131, 2016). With the release of the Galileo satellite antenna phase center offsets (PCO) w.r.t. the satellites center of mass (GSA in Galileo IOV and FOC satellite metadata, 2019) and the availability of new ground antenna calibrations for GNSS receivers, based on anechoic chamber measurements or on robot calibrations, GNSS global network solutions qualify to contribute to the scale determination of terrestrial networks, as well. Our analysis is based on global multi-GNSS solutions of the years 2017 and 2018 and may be seen as “proof of concept” for the contribution of GNSS data to the scale determination of the terrestrial reference frame. In a first step, the currently used Galileo PCO estimations (Steigenberger et al. in J Geod 90:773–785, 2016) are compared to the released PCO values, which show discrepancies on the decimeter-level. Eventually, the published Galileo PCOs are used in an experimental solution as known values. GNSS-specific PCOs are estimated, as well, for GPS and GLONASS, together with the “standard” parameters set up in global GNSS solutions. From the estimated network coordinates, a time series of daily scale parameters of the terrestrial network is extracted, which shows an offset of the order of 1 ppb (parts per billion, corresponding to a height difference of 6.4 mm on the Earth’s surface) w.r.t. to the ITRF2014 network and an annual variation with an amplitude of about 0.3 ppb.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Astronomy
08 Faculty of Science > Other Institutions > Emeriti, Faculty of Science

UniBE Contributor:

Villiger, Arturo; Dach, Rolf; Schaer, Stefan; Prange, Lars; Beutler, Gerhard and Jäggi, Adrian


500 Science > 520 Astronomy








Pierre Fridez

Date Deposited:

10 Sep 2020 17:11

Last Modified:

13 Sep 2020 02:51

Publisher DOI:





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