Trunk, pelvis and lower limb walking biomechanics are similarly altered in those with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome regardless of cam morphology size.

Savage, Trevor N; Saxby, David J; Pizzolato, Claudio; Diamond, Laura E; Murphy, Nicholas J; Hall, Michelle; Spiers, Libby; Eyles, Jillian; Killen, Bryce A; Suwarganda, Edin K; Dickenson, Edward J; Griffin, Damian; Fary, Camdon; O'Donnell, John; Molnar, Robert; Randhawa, Sunny; Reichenbach, Stephan; Tran, Phong; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; ... (2021). Trunk, pelvis and lower limb walking biomechanics are similarly altered in those with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome regardless of cam morphology size. Gait & posture, 83, pp. 26-34. Elsevier 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.10.002

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Studies of walking in those with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome have found altered pelvis and hip biomechanics. But a whole body, time-contiuous, assessment of biomechanical parameters has not been reported. Additionally, larger cam morphology has been associated with more pain, faster progression to end-stage osteoarthritis and increased cartilage damage but differences in walking biomechanics between large compared to small cam morphologies have not been assessed.


Are trunk, pelvis and lower limb biomechanics different between healthy pain-free controls and individuals with FAI syndrome and are those biomechanics different between those with larger, compared to smaller, cam morphologies?


Twenty four pain-free controls were compared against 41 participants with FAI syndrome who were stratified into two groups according to their maximum alpha angle. Participants underwent three-dimensional motion capture during walking. Trunk, pelvis, and lower limb biomechanics were compared between groups using statistical parametric mapping corrected for walking speed and pain.


Compared to pain-free controls, participants with FAI syndrome walked with more trunk anterior tilt (mean difference 7.6°, p < 0.001) as well as less pelvic rise (3°, p < 0.001), hip abduction (-4.6°, p < 0.05) and external rotation (-6.5°, p < 0.05). They also had lower hip flexion (-0.06Nm⋅kg-1, p < 0.05), abduction (-0.07Nm⋅kg-1, p < 0.05) and ankle plantarflexion moments (-0.19Nm⋅kg-1, p < 0.001). These biomechanical differences occurred throughout the gait cycle. There were no differences in walking biomechanics according to cam morphology size.


Results do not support the hypothesis that larger cam morphology is associated with larger differences in walking biomechanics but did demonstrate general differences in trunk, pelvis and lower limb biomechanics between those with FAI sydrome and pain-free controls. Altered external biomechanics are likely the result of complex sensory-motor strategy resulting from pain inhibition or impingement avoidance. Future studies should examine internal loading in those with FAI sydnrome.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Dermatology, Urology, Rheumatology, Nephrology, Osteoporosis (DURN) > Clinic of Rheumatology, Clinical Immunology and Allergology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

UniBE Contributor:

Reichenbach, Stephan


300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Beatrice Minder Wyssmann

Date Deposited:

26 Oct 2020 14:17

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:41

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Biomechanics Cam morphology Femoroacetabular impingement Pain Walking




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