Evaluation of changes in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in dogs after introduction of a quadrivalent antileptospiral vaccine in a highly endemic area

Francey, Thierry; Schweighauser, Ariane; Reber, Antonella; Schuller, Simone (2020). Evaluation of changes in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in dogs after introduction of a quadrivalent antileptospiral vaccine in a highly endemic area. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 34(6), pp. 2405-2417. Wiley-Blackwell 10.1111/jvim.15947

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Background - Since 2003, a marked increase in leptospirosis serogroup Australis has been observed in dogs in Switzerland. In 2013, a new quadrivalent antileptospiral vaccine (L4) was introduced, adding serogroups Australis and Grippotyphosa to Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae of the previous bivalent vaccines (L2).
Objective - To examine whether introduction of L4 was associated with decreased incidence of leptospirosis and decreased odds for dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) to be diagnosed with leptospirosis.
Animals - Four hundred and sixty‐nine dogs with AKI presented to a referral hospital, including 269 dogs with leptospirosis and 200 controls with other causes.
Methods - Descriptive section: disease incidence was evaluated for 3 consecutive periods: before (PRE, 2011‐2012), transition (TRANS, 2013‐2014), and after introduction of L4 (POST, 2015‐2017). Analytical section: variables associated with a diagnosis of leptospirosis were investigated in a case‐control study using multivariable logistic regression, and focusing on vaccination.
Results - The number of dogs diagnosed with leptospirosis (AKI‐L) decreased from 56.5 (PRE) to 15.7 (POST) cases/year while controls increased from 16.5 to 38.0 cases/year. Control dogs (AKI‐nL) showed a decrease in L2 vaccination (100% to 26%) and an increase in L4 vaccination (0% to 70%). The odds ratio for vaccinated dogs to be diagnosed with leptospirosis was 0.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06‐0.22; P < .001) for L4 and 2.08 (0.58‐7.42; P = .26) for L2.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance - The introduction of L4 was associated with a marked decrease in dogs with leptospirosis and AKI in Switzerland. Use of the L4 vaccine was associated with significantly decreased odds of disease.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine (DKV) > Small Animal Clinic
05 Veterinary Medicine > Research Foci > Host-Pathogen Interaction
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine (DKV)
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine (DKV) > Small Animal Clinic > Small Animal Clinic, Internal Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Francey, Thierry; Schweighauser, Ariane and Schuller, Simone

Subjects:

600 Technology > 630 Agriculture
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0891-6640

Publisher:

Wiley-Blackwell

Language:

English

Submitter:

Thierry Francey-Spicher

Date Deposited:

11 Nov 2020 11:37

Last Modified:

28 Nov 2020 01:33

Publisher DOI:

10.1111/jvim.15947

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.147669

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/147669

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