Metabolomic, hormonal and physiological responses to hypoglycemia versus euglycemia during exercise in adults with type 1 diabetes.

McCarthy, Olivia; Pitt, Jason; Churm, Rachel; Dunseath, Gareth J; Jones, Charlotte; Bally, Lia; Nakas, Christos T; Deere, Rachel; Eckstein, Max L; Bain, Stephen C; Moser, Othmar; Bracken, Richard M (2020). Metabolomic, hormonal and physiological responses to hypoglycemia versus euglycemia during exercise in adults with type 1 diabetes. BMJ open diabetes research & care, 8(1) BMJ Publishing Group 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001577

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INTRODUCTION

This study sought to compare the metabolomic, hormonal and physiological responses to hypoglycemia versus euglycemia during exercise in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Thirteen individuals with T1D (hemoglobin; 7.0%±1.3% (52.6±13.9 mmol/mol), age; 36±15 years, duration diabetes; 15±12 years) performed a maximum of 45 min submaximal exercise (60%±6% V̇O2max). Retrospectively identified exercise sessions that ended in hypoglycemia ((HypoEx) blood glucose (BG)≤3.9 mmol/L) were compared against a participant-matched euglycemic condition ((EuEx) BG≥4.0, BG≤10.0 mmol/L). Samples were compared for detailed physiological and hormonal parameters as well as metabolically profiled via large scale targeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Data were assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis techniques with false discovery rate adjustment. Significant results were considered at p≤0.05.

RESULTS

Cardiorespiratory and counterregulatory hormone responses, whole-body fuel use and perception of fatigue during exercise were similar under conditions of hypoglycemia and euglycemia (BG 3.5±0.3 vs 5.8±1.1 mmol/L, respectively p<0.001). HypoEx was associated with greater adenosine salvage pathway activity (5'-methylthioadenosine, p=0.023 and higher cysteine and methionine metabolism), increased utilization of glucogenic amino acids (glutamine, p=0.021, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and homoserine/threonine, p=0.045) and evidence of enhanced β-oxidation (lower carnitine p<0.001, higher long-chain acylcarnitines).

CONCLUSIONS

Exposure to acute hypoglycemia during exercise potentiates alterations in subclinical indices of metabolic stress at the level of the metabolome. However, the physiological responses induced by dynamic physical exercise may mask the symptomatic recognition of mild hypoglycemia during exercise in people with T1D, a potential clinical safety concern that reinforces the need for diligent glucose management.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER

DRKS00013509.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Institute of Clinical Chemistry
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Clinical Nutrition

UniBE Contributor:

Bally, Lia Claudia and Nakas, Christos T.

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

2052-4897

Publisher:

BMJ Publishing Group

Language:

English

Submitter:

Karin Balmer

Date Deposited:

09 Nov 2020 12:17

Last Modified:

18 Mar 2021 18:20

Publisher DOI:

10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001577

PubMed ID:

33020134

Uncontrolled Keywords:

diabetes mellitus energy metabolism exercise hypoglycemia type 1

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.147800

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/147800

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