Less Is More: a Mutation in the Chemical Defense Pathway of Erysimum cheiranthoides (Brassicaceae) Reduces Total Cardenolide Abundance but Increases Resistance to Insect Herbivores

Mirzaei, Mahdieh; Züst, Tobias; Younkin, Gordon C.; Hastings, Amy P.; Alani, Martin L.; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Jander, Georg (2020). Less Is More: a Mutation in the Chemical Defense Pathway of Erysimum cheiranthoides (Brassicaceae) Reduces Total Cardenolide Abundance but Increases Resistance to Insect Herbivores. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 46(11-12), pp. 1131-1143. Springer 10.1007/s10886-020-01225-y

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Erysimum cheiranthoides L (Brassicaceae; wormseed wallflower) accumulates not only glucosinolates, which are characteristic of the Brassicaceae, but also abundant and diverse cardenolides. These steroid toxins, primarily glycosylated forms of digitoxigenin, cannogenol, and strophanthidin, inhibit the function of essential Na+/K+-ATPases in animal cells. We screened a population of 659 ethylmethanesulfonate-mutagenized E. cheiranthoides plants to identify isolates with altered cardenolide profiles. One mutant line exhibited 66% lower cardenolide content, resulting from greatly decreased cannogenol and strophanthidin glycosides, partially compensated for by increases in digitoxigenin glycosides. This phenotype was likely caused by a single-locus recessive mutation, as evidenced by a wildtype phenotype of F1 plants from a backcross, a 3:1 wildtype:mutant segregation in the F2 generation, and genetic mapping of the altered cardenolide phenotype to one position in the genome. The mutation created a more even cardenolide distribution, decreased the average cardenolide polarity, but did not impact most glucosinolates. Growth of generalist herbivores from two feeding guilds, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae; green peach aphid) and Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae; cabbage looper), was decreased on the mutant line compared to wildtype. Both herbivores accumulated cardenolides in proportion to the plant content, with T. ni accumulating higher total concentrations than M. persicae. Helveticoside, a relatively abundant cardenolide in E. cheiranthoides, was not detected in M. persicae feeding on these plants. Our results support the hypothesis that increased digitoxigenin glycosides provide improved protection against M. persicae and T. ni, despite an overall decrease in cardenolide content of the mutant line.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS) > Biotic Interactions
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS)

UniBE Contributor:

Züst, Tobias

Subjects:

500 Science > 580 Plants (Botany)

ISSN:

0098-0331

Publisher:

Springer

Language:

English

Submitter:

Peter Alfred von Ballmoos-Haas

Date Deposited:

16 Nov 2020 10:48

Last Modified:

25 Nov 2020 08:34

Publisher DOI:

10.1007/s10886-020-01225-y

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Erysimum cheiranthoides; cardenolide; Na+/K+-ATPase; Trichoplusia ni; Myzus persicae; resistance; plant defense

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.148157

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/148157

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