Physicochemical Investigations of Homeopathic Preparations: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis—Part 3

Tournier, Alexander; Würtenberger, Sandra; Klein, Sabine D.; Baumgartner, Stephan (2021). Physicochemical Investigations of Homeopathic Preparations: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis—Part 3. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine, 27(1), pp. 45-57. Mary Ann Liebert 10.1089/acm.2020.0243

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Objectives: In parts I and II of our review of physicochemical research performed on homeopathic preparations, we identified relevant publications and analyzed the data in terms of individual experiments, looking for the most promising techniques that were used in the past. In this third part, we analyze the results of the experiments seeking to extract information about the possible modes of action underpinning homeopathic preparations.
Methods: We summarized the results from the 11 experimental areas previously introduced, extracting the general findings and trends. We also summarized the results in terms of specific research topics: aging, medium used for potentization, sample volume, temperature, material of potentization vessel, and, finally, the use of molecules to probe homeopathic samples.
Results: We identified a number of effects that appear consistently throughout the data: Differences to con- trols seem to increase with: time, moderate temperature, small samples volume, and in ionic medium, whereas high temperatures seem to abolish differences to controls. Based on the present analysis, there is no consistent evidence to date for the nanoparticle hypothesis to explain specific homeopathic treatment effects. However, the quantum coherence domain hypothesis, the dynamic water cluster hypothesis, and the weak quantum theory are still contenders and need to be further assessed experimentally.
Conclusions: The field requires further targeted experimentation to validate past findings reporting differ- ences between homeopathic dilutions and controls, and to expand these findings by specifically testing the three main working hypotheses that are currently at hand.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Medical Education > Institute of Complementary and Integrative Medicine (IKIM)

UniBE Contributor:

Tournier, Alexander and Baumgartner, Stephan


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
500 Science > 530 Physics
500 Science > 540 Chemistry
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health > 615 Pharmacology & therapeutics, prescription drugs




Mary Ann Liebert




Alexander Tournier

Date Deposited:

14 Dec 2020 15:07

Last Modified:

21 Jan 2021 01:33

Publisher DOI:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

physics, very high dilutions, serially diluted and agitated solutions, ultrahigh aqueous dilutions




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