Root Canal Morphology of 116 Maxillary Second Premolars by Micro-Computed Tomography in a Mixed Swiss-German Population with Systematic Review.

Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Kozaczek, Christoph; Campus, Guglielmo; Paqué, Frank; Wierichs, Richard Johannes (2020). Root Canal Morphology of 116 Maxillary Second Premolars by Micro-Computed Tomography in a Mixed Swiss-German Population with Systematic Review. Journal of endodontics, 46(11), pp. 1639-1647. Elsevier 10.1016/j.joen.2020.08.012

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The aim of this investigation was to examine the root canal system morphology of maxillary second premolars (Mx2Ps) of a Swiss-German population by means of micro-computed tomography and provide systematic review of the root canal configuration (RCC) literature of Mx2Ps.


The RCC, main foramina as well as accessory canals and foramina frequency of 116 Mx2Ps, were investigated by means of micro-computed tomography and 3-dimensional software imaging. The RCC from the coronal to apical thirds of the root as well as the main foramina number were described by using a four-digit system code. The literature review follows the PRISMA guideline analyzing randomized controlled trials and cross-sectional, cohort, comparative, validation, and evaluation studies on RCC in Embase, grey literature, PubMed, and Scopus.


Most frequently observed RCCs of Mx2Ps were 1-1-1/1 (35.3%), 1-1-1/2 (21.6%), and 2-1-1/1 (14.7%). Another 11 less frequent RCCs were observed. All Mx2Ps had 1 root. One main foramen was observed in 59.5% and two in 37.9%. Accessory foramina were observed in 46.6%. Thirty-one percent of the Mx2Ps showed accessory canals. One connecting canal between the buccal and palatal was observed in 12.1%.


Detailed RCC information of Mx2Ps in a Swiss-German population and the results of a systematic literature review of different populations and research methods used to investigate root canal morphology and configuration of Mx2Ps are given. Within the limitations of the study, a high RCC, connecting and accessory canals variability occur in maxillary second premolars.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry

UniBE Contributor:

Wolf, Thomas Gerhard, Kozaczek, Christoph, Campus, Guglielmo Giuseppe, Wierichs, Richard Johannes


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Daniela Zesiger

Date Deposited:

22 Dec 2020 14:54

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:42

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Internal morphology maxillary second premolar micro-CT root canal configuration systematic review




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