Imaging and Imaging-Based Management of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules.

Iakovou, Ioannis; Giannoula, Evanthia; Sachpekidis, Christos (2020). Imaging and Imaging-Based Management of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules. Journal of clinical medicine, 9(2) MDPI 10.3390/jcm9020384

jcm-09-00384.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY).

Download (302kB) | Preview

Thyroid nodules are less frequent in children than adults. Childhood thyroid nodules carry specific features, including a higher risk of malignancy than nodules in adults, rendering them unique in terms of management. Subsequently, they should be considered a distinct clinical entity with specific imaging recommendations. Initial evaluation requires a thorough workup, including clinical examination, and a detailed personal and familial history to determine the presence of possible risk factors. Laboratory and radiologic evaluation play an integral part in the diagnostic algorithm, with ultrasonography (US) being the first diagnostic test in all patients. US elastography has been recently introduced as an incremental method, reducing the subjectivity of the clinical diagnosis of nodule firmness associated with increased malignancy risk. However, fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) remains the mainstay in the diagnostic work-up of thyroid nodules and is documented to be best method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules. In addition, thyroid scintigraphy provides functional imaging information, which has a role both in the diagnostic management of thyroid nodules and during follow up in malignancies. Finally, despite providing additional information in certain clinical scenarios, 18F-fludeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG-PET), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging are not routinely recommended for the evaluation of patients with newly detected thyroid nodules or in all cases of thyroid cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the concepts in imaging and imaging-based management of nodular thyroid disease in the pediatric population, acknowledging the unique features that this patient group carries and the specific approach it requires.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Sachpekidis, Christos


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Sabine Lanz

Date Deposited:

29 Dec 2020 12:57

Last Modified:

29 Dec 2020 12:57

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

children elastography fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), scintigraphy imaging thyroid cancer thyroid nodules ultrasound




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback