Emerging Treatment Options in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Janus Kinases, Stem Cells, and More.

Misselwitz, Benjamin; Juillerat, Pascal; Sulz, Michael Christian; Siegmund, Britta; Brand, Stephan (2020). Emerging Treatment Options in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Janus Kinases, Stem Cells, and More. Digestion, 101(S1), pp. 69-82. Karger 10.1159/000507782

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BACKGROUND

Treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has tremendously improved during the last 20 years; however, a substantial fraction of patients does not respond to available therapies or lose response, and new strategies are needed.

SUMMARY

Two pharmacological principles have been successfully used for IBD treatment: inhibition of cellular signaling and interference with leukocyte trafficking. Besides tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-23 is a promising drug target, and antibodies for the combined inhibition of IL-23 and IL-12 (ustekinumab and briakinumab) or selective IL-23 inhibition (brazikumab, risankizumab, and mirikizumab) seem to be effective in Crohn's disease (CD) with emerging evidence also for ulcerative colitis (UC). Janus kinase (JAK) mediates intracellular signaling of a large number of cytokines. Tofacitinib is the first JAK inhibitor approved for UC, and the JAK inhibitors filgotinib and upadacitinib showed potential in CD. Leukocyte trafficking can be inhibited by interference with lymphocyte integrin-α4β7 or endothelial MadCAM-1. The α4β7 integrin inhibitor vedolizumab is an established treatment in IBD, and long-term data of pivotal studies are now available. Additional molecules with therapeutic potential are α4β7-specific abrilumab, β7-specific etrolizumab, and the α4-specific small molecule AJM300. PF-00547659, an antibody against endothelial MadCAM-1, also showed therapeutic potential in UC. Modulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) activity is necessary for the egress of lymphocytes into the circulation, and S1PR modulation results in lymphocyte trapping in lymphatic organs. Ozanimod, an S1PR1 and S1PR5 inhibitor, has been successfully tested in initial studies in UC. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy has been approved for the treatment of complex, active CD fistula, and mesenchymal stem cell therapy might be a paradigm shift for this condition. Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been successfully used in CD case series; however, in a randomized trial, a highly stringent endpoint was not met. However, considering positive effects in secondary endpoints, ASCT might be a future treatment of last resort in severe, refractory CD cases, provided that safer protocols can be provided. Key messages: New IBD treatments are successful for a significant fraction of patients. However, new strategies for patient selection, treatment combinations, and/or additional therapies must be developed to serve the need of all IBD patients.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gastro-intestinal, Liver and Lung Disorders (DMLL) > Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine > Gastroenterology

UniBE Contributor:

Misselwitz, Benjamin and Juillerat, Pascal

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0012-2823

Publisher:

Karger

Language:

English

Submitter:

Rahel Fuhrer

Date Deposited:

22 Dec 2020 11:35

Last Modified:

22 Dec 2020 11:35

Publisher DOI:

10.1159/000507782

PubMed ID:

32570252

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Biologicals Crohn’s disease Inflammatory bowel diseases Janus kinase inhibition Lymphocyte trafficking Small molecules Stem cell transplantation Ulcerative colitis

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.149244

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/149244

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