Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection is associated with reduced HIV viral load and lower risk for opportunistic infections in people living with HIV.

Kusejko, Katharina; Günthard, Huldrych F; Olson, Gregory S; Zens, Kyra; Darling, Katharine; Khanna, Nina; Furrer, Hansjakob; Vetter, Pauline; Bernasconi, Enos; Vernazza, Pietro; Hoffmann, Matthias; Kouyos, Roger D; Nemeth, Johannes (2020). Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection is associated with reduced HIV viral load and lower risk for opportunistic infections in people living with HIV. PLoS biology, 18(12), e3000963. Public Library of Science 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000963

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Approximately 28% of the human population have been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), with the overwhelming majority of infected individuals not developing disease (latent TB infection (LTBI)). While it is known that uncontrolled HIV infection is a major risk factor for the development of TB, the effect of underlying LTBI on HIV disease progression is less well characterized, in part because longitudinal data are lacking. We sorted all participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) with at least 1 documented MTB test into one of the 3 groups: MTB uninfected, LTBI, or active TB. To detect differences in the HIV set point viral load (SPVL), linear regression was used; the frequency of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) in the SHCS between MTB uninfected patients, patients with LTBI, and patients with active TB were compared using logistic regression and time-to-event analyses. In adjusted models, we corrected for baseline demographic characteristics, i.e., HIV transmission risk group and gender, geographic region, year of HIV diagnosis, and CD4 nadir. A total of 13,943 SHCS patients had at least 1 MTB test documented, of whom 840 (6.0%) had LTBI and 770 (5.5%) developed active TB. Compared to MTB uninfected patients, LTBI was associated with a 0.24 decreased log HIV SPVL in the adjusted model (p < 0.0001). Patients with LTBI had lower odds of having candida stomatitis (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, p = 0.0035) and oral hairy leukoplakia (adjusted OR = 0.67, p = 0.033) when compared to MTB uninfected patients. The association of LTBI with a reduced HIV set point virus load and fewer unrelated infections in HIV/TB coinfected patients suggests a more complex interaction between LTBI and HIV than previously assumed.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Infectiology

UniBE Contributor:

Furrer, Hansjakob

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1544-9173

Publisher:

Public Library of Science

Language:

English

Submitter:

Annelies Luginbühl

Date Deposited:

05 Jan 2021 11:58

Last Modified:

05 Jan 2021 11:58

Publisher DOI:

10.1371/journal.pbio.3000963

PubMed ID:

33284802

BORIS DOI:

10.48350/149621

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/149621

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