Variations in medial and lateral slope and medial proximal tibial angle.

Meier, Malin; Janssen, Dino; Koeck, Franz Xaver; Thienpont, Emmanuel; Beckmann, Johannes; Best, Raymond (2021). Variations in medial and lateral slope and medial proximal tibial angle. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy, 29(3), pp. 939-946. Springer-Verlag 10.1007/s00167-020-06052-y

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The primary objective of this study was to quantify the variations of the medial posterior tibial slope (MPTS) and the lateral posterior tibial slope (LPTS), as well as of the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), and to determine the fraction of patients for which standard techniques including different alignment techniques would result in alteration of the patient's individual posterior tibial slope (PTS) and MPTA. Furthermore, it was of interest if a positive correlation between PTS and MPTA or between medial and lateral slope exists.


A retrospective study was performed on CT-scans of 234 consecutively selected European patients undergoing individual total knee replacement. All measurements were done on three-dimensional CAD models, which were generated on the basis of individual CT-scans, including the hip, knee, and ankle center. Measurements included the medial and lateral PTS and the MPTA. PTS was measured as the angle between the patient's articular surface and a plane perpendicular to the mechanical axis of the tibia in the sagittal plane. MPTA was defined as the angle between the tibial mechanical axis and the proximal articular surface of the tibia in the coronal plane.


Analysis revealed a wide variation of the MPTS, LPTS, and MPTA among the patients. MPTS and LPTS varied significantly both interindividually and intraindividually. The range of PTS was up to 20° for MPTS (from - 4.3° to 16.8°) and for LPTS (from - 2.9 to 17.2°). The mean intraindividual difference between MPTS and LPTS in the same knee was 2.6° (SD 2.0) with a maximum of 9.5°. MPTA ranged from 79.8 to 92.1° with a mean of 86.6° (SD ± 2.4). Statistical analysis revealed a weak positive correlation between MPTA and MPTS.


The study demonstrates a huge interindividual variability in PTS and MPTA as well as significant intraindividual differences in MPTS and LPTS. Therefore, the question arises, whether the use of standard techniques, including fixed PTSs and MPTAs, is sufficient to address every single patient's individual anatomy.



Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Orthopaedic, Plastic and Hand Surgery (DOPH) > Clinic of Orthopaedic Surgery

UniBE Contributor:

Meier, Malin Kristin


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Kathrin Aeschlimann

Date Deposited:

20 Jan 2021 12:00

Last Modified:

02 Mar 2021 01:33

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Slope Tibia anatomy Tibia angle Tibia geometry Total knee arthroplasty Total knee replacement




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