Classification of acute and delayed contrast media-induced reactions: proposal of a three-step system

Böhm, Ingrid; Heverhagen, Johannes; Klose, Klaus J (2012). Classification of acute and delayed contrast media-induced reactions: proposal of a three-step system. Contrast media & molecular imaging, 7(6), pp. 537-41. Chichester: Wiley 10.1002/cmmi.1475

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Physicians and scientists use a broad spectrum of terms to classify contrast media (CM)-induced adverse reactions. In particular, the designation of hypersensitivity reactions is quite varied. Consequently, comparisons of different papers dealing with this subject are difficult or even impossible. Moreover, general descriptions may lead to problems in understanding reactions in patients with a history of adverse CM-reactions, and in efficiently managing these patients. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to suggest an easy system to clearly classify these reactions. The proposed three-step systems (3SS) is built up as follows: step 1 exactly describes the clinical features, including their severity; step 2 categorizes the time point of the onset (immediate or nonimmediate); and step 3 generally classifies the reaction (hypersensitivity or nonhypersensitivity reaction). The 3SS may facilitate better understanding of the clinical manifestations of adverse CM reactions and may support the prevention of these reactions on the basis of personalized medicine approaches.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Böhm, Ingrid and Heverhagen, Johannes


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:37

Last Modified:

14 Feb 2014 01:13

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URI: (FactScience: 222321)

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