Influence of embedding media on the accuracy of working length determination by means of apex locator: an ex vivo study

Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Krauß-Mironjuk, Anna; Wierichs, Richard Johannes; Briseño-Marroquin, Benjamin (2021). Influence of embedding media on the accuracy of working length determination by means of apex locator: an ex vivo study. Scientific reports, 11(1), p. 3340. Springer Nature 10.1038/s41598-021-82942-6

s41598-021-82942-6.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY).

Download (1MB) | Preview

The aim of this research was to determine ex vivo the influence on accuracy of five different embedding media, for investigative and educational purposes, and one electronic apex locator. 110 human extracted mature roots of permanent single‐rooted human teeth were used. The roots were embedded in alginate, stick sponge, 2% agar–agar and 6% and 12% gelatin. The actual working length to the physiological foramen was determined under a stereo‐microscope (16 ×) and the electronic working lengths with the Elements Diagnostic Unit and a K‐file ISO 10. The accuracy ranges of the accumulated measurements, when allowing a ± 0.5 mm tolerance, went from 98.2% (6% and 12% gelatin), 93.7% (alginate), 92.8% (2% agar–agar) to 91.7% (sponge). The exact measurements at the physiological foramen ranged from 80.0% (6% gelatin), 76.5% (2% agar–agar), 71.8% (12% gelatin), 68.2% (alginate) to 64.5% (sponge). Although relatively seldom (n = 24), measurements with deviations of more than ± 0.5 mm were also observed; thus, the accuracy of the working length determination results per se can be considered as clinically acceptable. The results of this research allow a recommendation of the investigated embedding media for electronic working length determination models for educational and research purposes in endodontics.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry

UniBE Contributor:

Wolf, Thomas Gerhard, Wierichs, Richard Johannes, Briseño Marroquin, Benjamin


600 Technology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Springer Nature




Thomas Gerhard Wolf

Date Deposited:

15 Feb 2021 12:09

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:47

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Biomaterials; Biomedical materials; Dentistry; Electrophysiology; Experimental models of disease; Medical research; Oral anatomy; Outcomes research; Tissues; Accuracy; Agar-agar; alginate; apex locator; embedding media; gelatin; sponge Translational research




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback