Prediction of anti-tuberculosis treatment duration based on a 22-gene transcriptomic model.

Heyckendorf, Jan; Marwitz, Sebastian; Reimann, Maja; Avsar, Korkut; DiNardo, Andrew; Günther, Gunar; Hoelscher, Michael; Ibraim, Elmira; Kalsdorf, Barbara; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Kontsevaya, Irina; van Leth, Frank; Mandalakas, Anna Maria; Maurer, Florian P; Müller, Marius; Nitschkowski, Dörte; Olaru, Ioana D; Popa, Cristina; Rachow, Andrea; Rolling, Thierry; ... (2021). Prediction of anti-tuberculosis treatment duration based on a 22-gene transcriptomic model. European respiratory journal, 58(3) European Respiratory Society 10.1183/13993003.03492-2020

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BACKGROUND

The World Health Organization recommends standardised treatment durations for patients with tuberculosis. We identified and validated a host-RNA signature as a biomarker for individualised therapy durations for patients with drug-susceptible (DS)- and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-tuberculosis.

METHODS

Adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled into 5 independent cohorts in Germany and Romania. Clinical and microbiological data, and whole-blood for RNA transcriptomic analysis were collected at pre-defined timepoints throughout therapy. Treatment outcomes were ascertained Treatment outcomes were ascertained by TBNET criteria (6-month culture status/one-year follow-up). A whole-blood RNA therapy end model was developed in a multi-step process involving a machine-learning algorithm to identify hypothetical individual end-of-treatment timepoints.

RESULTS

Fifty patients with drug-susceptible (DS)-tuberculosis and 30 patients with MDR-tuberculosis were recruited in the German identification cohorts (DS- and MDR-GIC), 28 patients with DS-tuberculosis and 32 patients with MDR-tuberculosis in the German validation cohorts (DS- and MDR-GVC), and 52 patients with MDR-tuberculosis in the Romanian validation cohort (MDR-RVC). A 22-gene RNA model that defined cure-associated end-of-therapy timepoints was derived from the DS- and MDR-GIC data. The model was superior to other published signatures to accurately predict clinical outcomes for patients in the DS-GVC (AUC=0.94 [95%CI:0.9-0.98]) and suggests that cure may be achieved with shorter treatment durations for tuberculosis patients in the MDR-GIC (mean reduction 218.0 days, 34.2%, p<0.001), the MDR-GVC (mean reduction 211.0 days, 32.9%, p<0.001), and the MDR-RVC (mean reduction of 161.0 days, 23.4%, p=0.001).

CONCLUSION

Biomarker-guided management may substantially shorten the duration of therapy for many patients with MDR-tuberculosis.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gastro-intestinal, Liver and Lung Disorders (DMLL) > Clinic of Pneumology

UniBE Contributor:

Günther, Gunar

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0903-1936

Publisher:

European Respiratory Society

Language:

English

Submitter:

Heidi Lobsiger

Date Deposited:

17 Feb 2021 10:23

Last Modified:

05 Sep 2021 01:31

Publisher DOI:

10.1183/13993003.03492-2020

PubMed ID:

33574078

BORIS DOI:

10.48350/152269

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/152269

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