Loneliness and well-being during the Covid-19 pandemic: Associations with personality and emotion regulation

Gubler, Danièle A.; Makowski, Lisa M.; Troche, Stefan J.; Schlegel, Katja (2021). Loneliness and well-being during the Covid-19 pandemic: Associations with personality and emotion regulation. Journal of happiness studies, 22(5), pp. 2323-2342. Springer Netherlands 10.1007/s10902-020-00326-5

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The present study examined how neuroticism, extraversion, and emotion regulation were related to loneliness and well-being during 6 weeks of major public life restrictions in the Covid-19 pandemic in Switzerland. Cross-sectional results from 466 participants showed that neuroticism and emotion regulation strategies were associated with higher loneliness and lower well-being. However, in contrast to prior research, associations of extraversion with loneliness and well-being were weak and were qualified by interactions with emotion regulation. For introverts, maladaptive cognitive strategies such as rumination or catastrophizing were related to higher levels of loneliness. For extraverts, emotion suppression was related to lower levels of affective well-being. Individuals with low maladaptive regulation reported higher well-being the longer the public life restrictions were in place at the time of study participation. These findings suggest that first, extraversion may lose some of its protective value for loneliness and well-being when opportunities to engage in social activities are limited; second, that loneliness and well-being do not decrease over 6 weeks of public life restrictions; and third, that future studies should further investigate the moderating role of emotion regulation on the link between personality, loneliness, and well-being.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology
07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Personality Psychology, Differential Psychology and Diagnostics

UniBE Contributor:

Gubler, Danièle Anne, Makowski, Lisa Michaela, Troche, Stefan, Schlegel, Katja


100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 370 Education




Springer Netherlands




Karin Dubler

Date Deposited:

12 Apr 2021 15:13

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:48

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:






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