Evaluation of Lebanon’s Offshore-Wind-Energy Potential

Ibarra-Berastegi, Gabriel; Ulazia, Alain; Saénz, Jon; Gonzalez-Rojí, Santos J. (2019). Evaluation of Lebanon’s Offshore-Wind-Energy Potential. Journal of marine science and engineering, 7(10), p. 361. MDPI 10.3390/jmse7100361

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The only regional evaluation of Lebanese wind-energy potential (National Wind Atlas) dates back to 2011 and was carried out by a United Nations agency. In this work, data from the most recent reanalysis (ERA5) developed at the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF), corresponding to the 2010–2017 period, were used to evaluate Lebanese offshore-wind-energy potential. In the present study, wind power density associated to a SIEMENS 154/6 turbine was calculated with a horizontal resolution of 31 km and 1 hour time steps. This work incorporated the impact of air density changes into the calculations due to the seasonal evolution of pressure, temperature, and humidity. Observed average offshore air density ρ0 was 1.19 kg/m3 for the 2010–2017 period, but if instead of ρ0 , hourly ρ values were used, seasonal oscillations of wind power density (WPD) represented differences in percentage terms ranging from −4% in summer to +3% in winter. ERA5 provides hourly wind, temperature, pressure, and dew-point temperature values that allowed us to calculate the hourly evolution of air density during this period and could also be used to accurately evaluate wind power density off the Lebanese coast. There was a significant gradient in wind power density along the shore, with the northern coastal area exhibiting the highest potential and reaching winter values of around 400 W/m2 . Finally, this study suggests that the initial results provided by the National Wind Atlas overestimated the true offshore-wind-energy potential, thus highlighting the suitability of ERA5 as an accurate tool for similar tasks globally. View Full-Text

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Climate and Environmental Physics
10 Strategic Research Centers > Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR)

UniBE Contributor:

Gonzalez Rojí, Santos José


500 Science > 530 Physics
500 Science > 550 Earth sciences & geology








Santos José Gonzalez Rojí

Date Deposited:

15 Apr 2021 17:17

Last Modified:

18 Apr 2021 03:02

Publisher DOI:






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