Sex and gender gap in spinal cord injury research: Focus on cardiometabolic diseases. A mini review.

Raguindin, Peter Francis; Muka, Taulant; Glisic, Marija (2021). Sex and gender gap in spinal cord injury research: Focus on cardiometabolic diseases. A mini review. Maturitas, 147, pp. 14-18. Elsevier 10.1016/j.maturitas.2021.03.004

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Cardiometabolic disease (CMD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite well-acknowledged sex and gender differences in CMD in the general population, they remain insufficiently studied in persons with SCI. To describe the landscape of sex and gender in SCI research, we searched the literature for systematic reviews on cardiometabolic health in this population. Out of 15 systematic reviews identified, only 9 provided meaningful information on sex. Although one-quarter to one-fifth of the SCI population is female, women comprised only one-eighth to a quarter of study participants. A number of clinical studies purposively excluded women, to make the study population more homogenous. For those studies which included both sexes, in general, no sex-specific analyses were performed due to small sample sizes. All these reasons have contributed to the underrepresentation of females in the current body of evidence. Therefore, future studies should adopt a more sex- and gender-sensitive research framework to address cardiometabolic risk in SCI. Novel and advanced epidemiological methods should also be used, considering small sample sizes. Finally, collaborative research (through consortia and multi-center studies) should be encouraged to include more females. More inclusive research will ensure that everyone will benefit from scientific advancements, regardless of sex and gender.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Health Sciences (GHS)

UniBE Contributor:

Raguindin, Peter Francis, Muka, Taulant, Glisic, Marija


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services








Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

16 Apr 2021 13:16

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:50

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Aging Menopause Paraplegia Sex differences Spinal cord injury Tetraplegia Women's health




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