Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations

Bosson, Jennifer K.; Jurek, Paweł; Vandello, Joseph A.; Kosakowska-Berezecka, Natasza; Olech, Michał; Besta, Tomasz; Bender, Michael; Hoorens, Vera; Becker, Maja; Timur Sevincer, A.; Best, Deborah L.; Safdar, Saba; Włodarczyk, Anna; Zawisza, Magdalena; Żadkowska, Magdalena; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Badu Agyemang, Collins; Akbaş, Gülçin; Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan; Ammirati, Soline; ... (2021). Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 52(3), pp. 231-258. Sage 10.1177/0022022121997997

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Precarious manhood beliefs portray manhood, relative to womanhood, as a social status that is hard to earn, easy to lose, and proven via public action. Here, we present cross-cultural data on a brief measure of precarious manhood beliefs (the Precarious Manhood Beliefs scale [PMB]) that covaries meaningfully with other cross-culturally validated gender ideologies and with country-level indices of gender equality and human development. Using data from university samples in 62 countries across 13 world regions (N = 33,417), we demonstrate: (1) the psychometric isomorphism of the PMB (i.e., its comparability in meaning and statistical properties across the individual and country levels); (2) the PMB’s distinctness from, and associations with, ambivalent sexism and ambivalence toward men; and (3) associations of the PMB with nation-level gender equality and human development. Findings are discussed in terms of their statistical and theoretical implications for understanding widely-held beliefs about the precariousness of the male gender role.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Social Neuroscience and Social Psychology

UniBE Contributor:

Krivoshchekov, Vladislav, Malayeri, Shera


300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology








Vladislav Krivoshchekov

Date Deposited:

30 Jun 2021 14:42

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:51

Publisher DOI:





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