Sex-Based Differences in Bleeding Risk After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Implications for the Academic Research Consortium High Bleeding Risk Criteria.

Spirito, Alessandro; Gragnano, Felice; Corpataux, Noé; Vaisnora, Lukas; Galea, Roberto; Svab, Stefano; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Siontis, George C. M.; Praz, Fabien; Lanz, Jonas; Billinger, Michael; Hunziker, Lukas; Stortecky, Stefan; Pilgrim, Thomas; Capodanno, Davide; Urban, Philip; Pocock, Stuart; Mehran, Roxana; Heg, Dik; Windecker, Stephan; ... (2021). Sex-Based Differences in Bleeding Risk After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Implications for the Academic Research Consortium High Bleeding Risk Criteria. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(12), e021965. American Heart Association 10.1161/JAHA.121.021965

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Background Female sex was not included among the high bleeding risk (HBR) criteria by the Academic Research Consortium (ARC) as it remains unclear whether it constitutes an HBR condition after percutaneous coronary intervention. We investigated whether female sex associates with HBR and assessed the performance of ARC HBR criteria separately in women and men. Methods and Results Among all consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention between 2009 and 2018, bleeding occurrences up to 1 year were prospectively collected and centrally adjudicated. All but one of the originally defined ARC HBR criteria were assessed, and the ARC HBR score generated accordingly. Among 16 821 patients, 25.6% were women. Compared with men, women were older and had lower creatinine clearance and hemoglobin values. After adjustment, female sex was independently associated with access-site (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.22-3.74; P=0.008) but not with overall or non-access-site 1-year Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3 or 5 bleeding. This association remained consistent when the femoral but not the radial approach was chosen. The ARC HBR score discrimination, using the original criteria, was lower among women than men (c-index 0.644 versus 0.688; P=0.048), whereas a revised ARC HBR score, in which age, creatinine clearance, and hemoglobin were modeled as continuous rather than dichotomized variables, performed similarly in both sexes. Conclusions Female sex is an independent predictor for access-site bleeding but not for overall bleeding events at 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention. The ARC HBR framework shows an overall good performance in both sexes, yet is lower in women than men, attributable to dichotomization of age, creatinine clearance, and hemoglobin values, which are differently distributed between sexes. Registration URL:; Unique identifier: NCT02241291.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Cardiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > CTU Bern

UniBE Contributor:

Spirito, Alessandro; Vaisnora, Lukas; Galea, Roberto; Svab, Stefano; Siontis, Georgios; Praz, Fabien Daniel; Lanz, Jonas; Billinger, Michael; Hunziker Munsch, Lukas Christoph; Stortecky, Stefan; Pilgrim, Thomas; Heg, Dierik Hans; Windecker, Stephan; Räber, Lorenz and Valgimigli, Marco


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




American Heart Association




Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

16 Jun 2021 10:25

Last Modified:

17 Jun 2021 15:39

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Academic Research Consortium bleeding female sex percutaneous coronary intervention vascular access




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