Impact of Orthodontic Forces on Plasma Levels of Markers of Bone Turnover and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Buccal Expansion.

Danz, Jan C.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Bornstein, Michael M.; Katsaros, Christos; Stavropoulos, Andreas (2021). Impact of Orthodontic Forces on Plasma Levels of Markers of Bone Turnover and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Buccal Expansion. Frontiers in physiology, 12, p. 637606. Frontiers Research Foundation 10.3389/fphys.2021.637606

Danz_et_al._2021.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY).

Download (2MB) | Preview

Plasma levels of protein analytes might be markers to predict and monitor the kinetics of bone and tissue remodeling, including maximization of orthodontic treatment stability. They could help predict/prevent and/or diagnose possible adverse effects such as bone dehiscences, gingival recession, or root resorption. The objective of this study was to measure plasma levels of markers of bone turnover and inflammation during orthodontic force application in a rat model of orthodontic expansion. Two different orthodontic forces for bilateral buccal expansion of the maxillary arches around second and third molars were applied in 10 rats equally distributed in low-force (LF) or conventional force (CF) groups. Four rats served as the control group. Blood samples were collected at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 13, 21, and 58. Longitudinal concentrations of osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined in blood samples by a multiplex immunoassay. CF and LF resulted in a significantly maxillary skeletal expansion while the CF group demonstrated significantly higher expansion than the LF group in the long term. Bone turnover demonstrated a two-phase response. During the "early phase" (up to 6 days of force application), LF resulted in more sRANKL expression and increased sRANKL/OPG ratio than the CF and control animals. There was a parallel increase in PTH levels in the early phase in response to LF. During the "late phase" (6-58 days), the markers of bone turnover were stable in both groups. IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 levels did not significantly change the test groups throughout the study. These results suggest that maxillary expansion in response to different orthodontic forces follows different phases of bone turnover that may be force specific.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Orthodontics

UniBE Contributor:

Danz, Jan, Katsaros, Christos


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Frontiers Research Foundation




Renate Imhof-Etter

Date Deposited:

16 Jun 2021 10:35

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:51

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

bone biology and physiology interleukin maxillary expansion orthodontic forces orthodontic tooth movement osteoprotegerin parathyroid hormone receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback