Bridgman Growth of Laser-Cooling-Grade LiLuF 4 :Yb 3+ Single Crystals

Volpi, Azzurra; Krämer, Karl W.; Biner, Daniel; Wiggins, Brenden; Kock, Jackson; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Peterson, Eric J.; Spilde, Michael N.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor; Hehlen, Markus P. (2021). Bridgman Growth of Laser-Cooling-Grade LiLuF 4 :Yb 3+ Single Crystals. Crystal growth & design, 21(4), pp. 2142-2153. American Chemical Society 10.1021/acs.cgd.0c01552

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The first demonstration of solid-state laser cooling in fluoride grown by the Bridgman method is reported. We present advances in the Bridgman crystal growth of Yb3+-doped LiLuF4 (LLF:Yb) single crystals in a radio-frequencyheated furnace. COMSOL Multiphysics numerical simulations are used to investigate the thermal gradients within the crucible during the crystal growth. Optical spectroscopy and laser-cooling efficiency measurements of three LLF:Yb crystals as well as laser cooling of a LLF:5%Yb crystal in a double-pass geometry from room temperature to 195 K are reported. Solid-state laser cooling is only possible in materials having extremely high chemical purity and crystal quality. The vertical Bridgman method is well suited for the growth of high-quality crystals on the few gram scale, a quantity that is compatible with purification techniques that aim to exceed the 99.999−99.9999% purity that is typical of commercial precursor materials. The results demonstrate that the small-scale Bridgman growth of LLF:Yb in glassy-carbon crucibles is able to produce laser-coolinggrade crystals, opening a new route to produce high-performance materials for solid-state optical refrigerators and radiation-balanced lasers.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences (DCBP)

UniBE Contributor:

Krämer, Karl, Biner, Daniel


500 Science > 530 Physics
500 Science > 540 Chemistry




American Chemical Society




Karl Krämer

Date Deposited:

23 Jun 2021 19:03

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:51

Publisher DOI:





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