The CODE ambiguity-fixed clock and phase bias analysis products: generation, properties, and performance

Schaer, S.; Villiger, A.; Arnold, D.; Dach, R.; Prange, L.; Jäggi, A. (2021). The CODE ambiguity-fixed clock and phase bias analysis products: generation, properties, and performance. Journal of geodesy, 95(7) Springer-Verlag 10.1007/s00190-021-01521-9

Schaer2021_Article_TheCODEAmbiguity-fixedClockAnd.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY).

Download (3MB) | Preview

The generation and use of GNSS analysis products that allowparticularly for the needs of single-receiver applicationsprecise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) are becoming more and more popular. A general uncertainty concerns the question on how the necessary phase bias information should be provided to the PPP-AR user. Until now, each AR-enabling clock/bias representation method had its own practice to provide the necessary bias information. We have generalized the observable-specific signal bias (OSB) representation, as introduced in Villiger (J Geod 93:14871500, 2019) originally exclusively for pseudorange measurements, to carrier phase measurements. The existing common clock (CC) approach has been extended in a way that OSBs allowing for flexible signal and frequency handling between multiple GNSS become possible. Advantages of the proposed OSB-based PPP-AR approach are: GNSS biases can be provided in a consistent way for phase and code measurements and it is capable of multi-GNSS and suitable for standardization. This new, extended PPP-AR approach has been implemented by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). CODE clock products that adhere to the integer-cycle property have been submitted to the International GNSS Service (IGS) since mid of 2018 for three analysis lines: Rapid, Final, and MGEX (Multi-GNSS Extension). Ambiguity fixing is performed not only for GPS but also for Galileo. The integer-cycle property of between-satellite clock differences is of fundamental importance when comparing satellite clock estimates among various analysis lines, or at day boundaries. Both kinds of comparisons could be exploited at a very high level of consistency. Any retrieved comparison essentially indicated a standard deviation for between-satellite clocks from CODE of the order of 5 ps (1.5 mm in range). Finally, the integer-cycle property that may be recovered between the CODE Final clock and the accompanying bias product of consecutive daily sessions (using clock estimates additionally provided for the second midnight epoch) allows us to deduce GPS satellite clock and phase bias information that is consistent and continuous with respect to carrier phase observation data over two, three, or, in principle, yet more days. Phase-based clock densification from initially estimated integer-cycle-conform clock corrections at intervals of 300 s to 30 s (5 s in case of our Final clock product) is a matter of particular interest. Based on direct product comparisons and GRACE K-band ranging (KBR) data analysis, the quality of accordingly densified clock corrections could be confirmed to be on a level similar to that of of “anchor” (300s) clock corrections.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Astronomy

UniBE Contributor:

Schaer, Stefan, Villiger, Arturo, Arnold, Daniel, Dach, Rolf, Prange, Lars, Jäggi, Adrian


500 Science > 520 Astronomy








Pierre Fridez

Date Deposited:

19 Jul 2021 11:01

Last Modified:

02 Mar 2023 23:35

Publisher DOI:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

GNSS integer clocks, Phase biases, Observable-specific signal bias representation, OSB-based PPP-AR, Day-boundary continuity, Bias-SINEX




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback