Effect of immersive visualization technologies on cognitive load, motivation, usability, and embodiment

Wenk, Nicolas; Peñalver de Andrés, Joaquin Alvaro; Bütler, Karin; Nef, Tobias; Müri, René Martin; Marchal Crespo, Laura (2021). Effect of immersive visualization technologies on cognitive load, motivation, usability, and embodiment. Virtual reality, pp. 1-25. Springer-Verlag 10.1007/s10055-021-00565-8

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Virtual reality (VR) is a promising tool to promote motor (re)learning in healthy users and brain-injured patients. However, in current VR-based motor training, movements of the users performed in a three-dimensional space are usually visualized on computer screens, televisions, or projection systems, which lack depth cues (2D screen), and thus, display information using only monocular depth cues. The reduced depth cues and the visuospatial transformation from the movements performed in a three-dimensional space to their two-dimensional indirect visualization on the 2D screen may add cognitive load, reducing VR usability, especially in users suffering from cognitive impairments. These 2D screens might further reduce the learning outcomes if they limit users’ motivation and embodiment, factors previously associated with better motor performance. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of more immersive technologies using head-mounted displays (HMDs). As a first step towards potential clinical implementation, we ran an experiment with 20 healthy participants who simultaneously performed a 3D motor reaching and a cognitive counting task using: (1) (immersive) VR (IVR) HMD, (2) augmented reality (AR) HMD, and (3) computer screen (2D screen). In a previous analysis, we reported improved movement quality when movements were visualized with IVR than with a 2D screen. Here, we present results from the analysis of questionnaires to evaluate whether the visualization technology impacted users’ cognitive load, motivation, technology usability, and embodiment. Reports on cognitive load did not differ across visualization technologies. However, IVR was more motivating and usable than AR and the 2D screen. Both IVR and AR rea ched higher embodiment level than the 2D screen. Our results support our previous finding that IVR HMDs seem to be more suitable than the common 2D screens employed in VR-based therapy when training 3D movements. For AR, it is still unknown whether the absence of benefit over the 2D screen is due to the visualization technology per se or to technical limitations specific to the device.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

10 Strategic Research Centers > ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research > ARTORG Center - Gerontechnology and Rehabilitation
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology
10 Strategic Research Centers > ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research > ARTORG Center - Motor Learning and Neurorehabilitation

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences (GCB)

UniBE Contributor:

Wenk, Nicolas; Peñalver de Andrés, Joaquin Alvaro; Bütler, Karin; Nef, Tobias; Müri, René Martin and Marchal Crespo, Laura

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1359-4338

Publisher:

Springer-Verlag

Funders:

[4] Swiss National Science Foundation ; [UNSPECIFIED] Swiss National Center of Competence in Research (NCCR Robotics) ; [158] B. Braun Foundation ; [UNSPECIFIED] University of Bern

Projects:

[1183] OnLINE: Optimize motor Learning to Improve NEurorehabilitation

Language:

English

Submitter:

Nicolas Wenk

Date Deposited:

13 Sep 2021 14:31

Last Modified:

21 Sep 2021 19:46

Publisher DOI:

10.1007/s10055-021-00565-8

Additional Information:

Published in the Special Issue: "Virtual Reality for Therapy, Psychological Interventions, and Physical and Cognitive Rehabilitation" and presented at the 13th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality & Associated Technologies, Serpa, Portugal

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Immersive Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Cognitive Load, Motivation, Usability, Embodiment

BORIS DOI:

10.48350/158420

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/158420

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