Body Composition According to Spinal Cord Injury Level: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Raguindin, Peter Francis; Bertolo, Alessandro; Zeh, Ramona Maria; Fränkl, Gion; Itodo, Oche Adam; Capossela, Simona; Bally, Lia; Minder, Beatrice; Brach, Mirjam; Eriks-Hoogland, Inge; Stoyanov, Jivko; Muka, Taulant; Glisic, Marija (2021). Body Composition According to Spinal Cord Injury Level: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of clinical medicine, 10(17), p. 3911. MDPI 10.3390/jcm10173911

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The level of injury is linked with biochemical alterations and limitations in physical activity among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), which are crucial determinants of body composition. We searched five electronic databases from inception until 22 July 2021. The pooled effect estimates were computed using random-effects models, and heterogeneity was calculated using I2 statistics and the chi-squared test. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We pooled 40 studies comprising 4872 individuals with SCI (3991 males, 825 females, and 56 sex-unknown) in addition to chronic SCI (median injury duration 12.3 y, IQR 8.03-14.8). Individuals with tetraplegia had a higher fat percentage (weighted mean difference (WMD) 1.9%, 95% CI 0.6, 3.1) and lower lean mass (WMD -3.0 kg, 95% CI -5.9, -0.2) compared to those with paraplegia. Those with tetraplegia also had higher indicators of central adiposity (WMD, visceral adipose tissue area 0.24 dm2 95% CI 0.05, 0.43 and volume 1.05 L 95% CI 0.14, 1.95), whereas body mass index was lower in individuals with tetraplegia than paraplegia (WMD -0.9 kg/mg2, 95% CI -1.4, -0.5). Sex, age, and injury characteristics were observed to be sources of heterogeneity. Thus, individuals with tetraplegia have higher fat composition compared to paraplegia. Anthropometric measures, such as body mass index, may be inaccurate in describing adiposity in SCI individuals.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


13 Central Units > Administrative Director's Office > University Library of Bern
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Clinical Nutrition

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences (GCB)
Graduate School for Health Sciences (GHS)

UniBE Contributor:

Raguindin, Peter Francis, Itodo, Oche Adam, Bally, Lia Claudia, Minder, Beatrice, Muka, Taulant, Glisic, Marija


000 Computer science, knowledge & systems > 020 Library & information sciences
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services








Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

17 Sep 2021 10:29

Last Modified:

04 Jan 2023 11:26

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

body composition fat composition obesity paraplegia spinal cord injury




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