Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome associated with acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis: systematic review.

Orlando, Corinne; Milani, Gregorio P; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Wyttenbach, Rolf; Bianchetti, Mario G; Cristallo Lacalamita, Marirosa (2022). Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome associated with acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis: systematic review. Pediatric nephrology, 37(4), pp. 833-841. Springer-Verlag 10.1007/s00467-021-05244-z

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Kidney diseases are a recognized cause of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, usually abbreviated as PRES. The purpose of this review was to systematically address the association between acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis and PRES.


We performed a systematic review of the literature on acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis associated with PRES. The principles recommended by the Economic and Social Research Council guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis and on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses were used. Databases searched included Excerpta Medica, US National Library of Medicine, and Web of Science.


For the final analysis, we evaluated 47 reports describing 52 cases (32 males and 20 females). Fifty patients were ≤ 18 years of age. Blood pressure was classified as follows: normal-elevated (n = 3), stage 1 hypertension (n = 3), stage 2 hypertension (n = 5), and severe hypertension (n = 41). Acute kidney injury was classified as stage 1 in 32, stage 2 in 16, and stage 3 in four cases. Neuroimaging studies disclosed a classic posterior PRES pattern in 28 cases, a diffuse PRES pattern in 23 cases, and a brainstem-cerebellum PRES pattern in the remaining case. Antihypertensive drugs were prescribed in all cases and antiepileptic drugs in cases presenting with seizures. A resolution of clinical findings and neuroimaging lesions was documented in all cases with information about follow-up.


The main factor associated with PRES in acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis is severe hypertension. Prompt clinical suspicion, rapid evaluation, and management of hypertension are crucial. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara, Wyttenbach, Rolf


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Maria de Fatima Henriques Bernardo

Date Deposited:

07 Oct 2021 10:11

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:53

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Acute brain capillary leak syndrome Acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Hypertensive encephalopathy Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome




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