Mechanisms Underlying Calcium Nephrolithiasis.

Alexander, R T; Fuster, D G; Dimke, H (2022). Mechanisms Underlying Calcium Nephrolithiasis. Annual review of physiology, 84, pp. 559-583. Annual Reviews Inc. 10.1146/annurev-physiol-052521-121822

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Nephrolithiasis is a worldwide problem with increasing prevalence, enormous costs, and significant morbidity. Calcium-containing kidney stones are by far the most common kidney stones encountered in clinical practice. Consequently, hypercalciuria is the greatest risk factor for kidney stone formation. Hypercalciuria can result from enhanced intestinal absorption, increased bone resorption, or altered renal tubular transport. Kidney stone formation is complex and driven by high concentrations of calcium-oxalate or calcium-phosphate in the urine. After discussing the mechanism mediating renal calcium salt precipitation, we review recent discoveries in renal tubular calcium transport from the proximal tubule, thick ascending limb, and distal convolution. Furthermore, we address how calcium is absorbed from the intestine and mobilized from bone. The effect of acidosis on bone calcium resorption and urinary calcium excretion is also considered. Although recent discoveries provide insight into these processes, much remains to be understood in order to provide improved therapies for hypercalciuria and prevent kidney stone formation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 84 is February 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Dermatology, Urology, Rheumatology, Nephrology, Osteoporosis (DURN) > Clinic of Nephrology and Hypertension
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > Unit Childrens Hospital > Forschungsgruppe Nephrologie / Hypertonie

UniBE Contributor:

Fuster, Daniel Guido


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Annual Reviews Inc.




Daniel Fuster

Date Deposited:

08 Nov 2021 16:26

Last Modified:

12 Feb 2022 00:12

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