Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in girls and adolescents with Turner syndrome are related to karyotype, pubertal development and growth hormone treatment

Visser, Jenny A.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Zandwijken, Gladys R. J.; Limacher, Andreas; Ranke, Michael B.; Flück, Christa E. (2013). Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in girls and adolescents with Turner syndrome are related to karyotype, pubertal development and growth hormone treatment. Human reproduction, 28(7), pp. 1899-1907. Oxford: Oxford University Press 10.1093/humrep/det089

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In girls and adolescents with Turner syndrome (TS), is there a correlation between serum AMH levels and karyotype, spontaneous puberty and other biochemical markers of ovarian function, or growth hormone (GH) therapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) correlates with karyotype, pubertal development, LH, FSH and are measurable in a higher percentage of TS patients under GH therapy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Most girls with TS suffer from incomplete sexual development, premature ovarian failure and infertility due to abnormal ovarian folliculogenesis. Serum AMH levels reflect the ovarian reserve in females, even in childhood. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Cross-sectional study investigating 270 karyotype proven TS patients aged 0-20 years between 2009 and 2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: Studies were conducted at three University Children's hospitals in Europe. Main outcome measures were clinical data concerning pubertal development as well as laboratory data including karyotype, serum AMH, LH, FSH, estradiol (E2), inhibin B and IGF. RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Serum AMH was detectable in 21.9% of all TS girls and correlated strongly with karyotypes. A measurable serum AMH was found in 77% of TS girls with karyotype 45,X/46,XX, in 25% with 'other' karyotypes and in only 10% of 45,X TS girls. A strong relationship was also observed for measurable serum AMH and signs of spontaneous puberty such as breast development [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 19.3; 95% CI 2.1-175.6; P = 0.009] and menarche (crude OR 47.6; 95% CI 4.8-472.9; P = 0.001). Serum AMH correlated negatively with FSH and LH, but did not correlate with E2 and inhibin B. GH therapy increased the odds of having measurable AMH in TS (adjusted OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.9-8.8; P < 0.001). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow longitudinal interpretation of the data; for that further studies are needed. High percentage of non-measurable AMH levels in the cohort of TS require categorized analysis. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Serum AMH levels are a useful marker of the follicle pool and thus ovarian function in pediatric patients with TS. These findings are in line with the published literature. The finding that GH therapy may affect AMH levels is novel, but must be confirmed by future longitudinal studies.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > CTU Bern
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Paediatric Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Limacher, Andreas and Flück, Christa


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Oxford University Press




Anette van Dorland

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:40

Last Modified:

20 Jul 2022 10:02

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Web of Science ID:




URI: (FactScience: 223661)

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