Managing Incidental Findings Reported by Medical, Sonography and Other Students Performing Educational Ultrasound Examinations.

Dietrich, Christoph F; Fraser, Alan G; Dong, Yi; Guth, Sabine; Hari, Roman; Hoffmann, Beatrice; Prosch, Helmut; Walter, Robin; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Nolsøe, Christian Pállson; Blaivas, Michael (2022). Managing Incidental Findings Reported by Medical, Sonography and Other Students Performing Educational Ultrasound Examinations. Ultrasound in medicine & biology, 48(2), pp. 180-187. Elsevier 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.09.015

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The evolution of ultrasound imaging into a key technology for diagnostic practice has resulted in its incorporation into the education of medical students worldwide. Although the introduction of ultrasound into medical schools' curricula is relatively recent, training of sonographers and other ultrasound users is mature. Ultrasound is being used in a variety of learning environments and clinical settings, from courses in anatomy and physiology to clinical rotations where medical and other students may scan healthy volunteers or patients, sometimes with little to no supervision. Educators may be apprehensive about a perceived high likelihood that students will encounter unexpected findings during these sessions, which could distress the patient or ultrasound model as well as the student, and result in problems that would be more pronounced if such incidental findings are complex. Policies are needed to address how to manage incidental ultrasound findings that are identified during educational activities. This article summarizes the background and provides a framework for establishing and implementing a well-designed and thoughtful approach for dealing with incidental findings observed in volunteer subjects by medical students during training courses in ultrasound diagnostic scanning. Subject confidentiality should be respected, and review of incidental findings should be transparent without provoking unnecessary anxiety. It is the responsibility of the instructor or supervisor to ensure adequate clinical follow-up if indicated.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Medical Education > Institute of General Practice and Primary Care (BIHAM)

UniBE Contributor:

Hari, Roman, Walter, Robin


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services








Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

18 Nov 2021 13:12

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:54

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Anxiety Education Kidney Liver Point of care Prevalence Student Ultrasonography




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