Decreasing incidence and determinants of Bacterial Pneumonia in people with HIV: The Swiss HIV Cohort Study

Balakrishna, Suraj; Wolfensberger, Aline; Kachalov, Viacheslav; Roth, Jan A; Kusejko, Katharina; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Furrer, Hansjakob; Hauser, Christoph; Calmy, Alexandra; Cavassini, Matthias; Schmid, Patrick; Bernasconi, Enos; Battegay, Manuel; Günthard, Huldrych F; Kouyos, Roger D (2022). Decreasing incidence and determinants of Bacterial Pneumonia in people with HIV: The Swiss HIV Cohort Study. The journal of infectious diseases, 225(9), pp. 1592-1600. Oxford University Press 10.1093/infdis/jiab573

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Background: Bacterial pneumonia is one of the leading reasons for hospitalization among people with HIV (PWH), yet there is limited evidence regarding its drivers in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: We assessed risk-factors for bacterial pneumonia in PWH enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study using univariable and multivariable marginal models. We further assessed the relationship between risk-factors and changes in bacterial pneumonia incidence using mediation analysis.

Results: We included 12927 PWH with follow-ups between 2008 and 2018. These patients had 985 bacterial pneumonia events during a follow-up of 100779 person-years(py). bacterial pneumonia incidence significantly decreased from 13.2 cases/1000 py in 2008 to 6.8 cases/1000 py in 2018. Older age, lower education-level, intravenous drug use, smoking, lower CD4-cell-count, higher HIV-viral load, and prior pneumonia events were significantly associated with higher bacterial pneumonia incidence. Notably, even CD4-cell-counts 350-499 were significantly associated with an increased risk compared to CD4≥500 (adjusted HR,1.39; 95% CI,1.01-1.89). Finally, we found that the decreasing incidence over the last decade can be explained by decreasing proportion of patients with CD4<500, viral-RNA>200, and smoking>one cigarette/day.

Conclusion: Improvements in cascade of care of HIV and decrease in smoking may have mediated a substantial decrease in bacterial pneumonia incidence.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Infectiology

UniBE Contributor:

Furrer, Hansjakob, Hauser, Christoph Victor


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Oxford University Press




Annelies Luginbühl

Date Deposited:

02 Dec 2021 11:57

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:55

Publisher DOI:


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