Systematic review of the changes in the microbiome following spinal cord injury: animal and human evidence.

Valido, Ezra; Bertolo, Alessandro; Fränkl, Gion Philip; Itodo, Oche Adam; Pinheiro, Tainá; Pannek, Jürgen; Kopp, Doris; Glisic, Marija; Stoyanov, Jivko (2022). Systematic review of the changes in the microbiome following spinal cord injury: animal and human evidence. Spinal cord, 60(4), pp. 288-300. Springer Nature 10.1038/s41393-021-00737-y

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Systematic review.


To investigate the changes in the microbiome among human and animal populations with spinal cord injury (SCI).


Four databases (EMBASE, Medline (Ovid), Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL)) and Google Scholar were searched. No language restrictions were applied. Data extraction was done in parallel and independently by two reviewers. The search was last conducted on 07 April 2021.


There were 6869 studies retrieved, 43 full-text studies reviewed, and 19 studies included. There were seven animal gut studies, six human gut studies, and six urinary tract studies identified. There were no publications found on other body sites. Among the included studies, we observed a consistent and significant difference in gut microbiome composition between populations with SCI and able-bodied populations. This is characterized by a decrease in beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria (Faecalbacterium, Megamonas, Roseburia) and an increase in inflammation-associated bacteria (Alistipes, Anaerotruncus, and Lachnoclostridium). On the other hand, the urine of individuals with SCI was polymicrobial and members of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) were frequently observed. Probiotics were shown to induce a significant but transient shift in the urinary tract microbiome. The studies had low to moderate risks of bias.


There are limited studies on the changes in microbiome among SCI populations. The gut microbiome was characterized by bacterial profiles associated with chronic inflammation and metabolic disorder while the studies of the urinary tract microbiome show the dominance of bacterial genera associated with urinary tract infection.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


13 Central Units > Administrative Director's Office > University Library of Bern
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Dermatology, Urology, Rheumatology, Nephrology, Osteoporosis (DURN) > Clinic of Urology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Orthopaedic, Plastic and Hand Surgery (DOPH) > Clinic of Orthopaedic Surgery

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences (GCB)

UniBE Contributor:

Bertolo, Alessandro, Itodo, Oche Adam, Pannek, Jürgen, Kopp, Doris, Glisic, Marija, Stoyanov, Jivko


000 Computer science, knowledge & systems > 020 Library & information sciences
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services




Springer Nature




Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

11 Jan 2022 16:35

Last Modified:

27 Dec 2022 10:49

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





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