Comparison of Large Animal Models for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Which Model to Use?

Taha, Aladdin; Bobi, Joaquim; Dammers, Ruben; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Dreyer, Antje Y; van Es, Adriaan C G M; Ferrara, Fabienne; Gounis, Matthew J; Nitzsche, Björn; Platt, Simon; Stoffel, Michael H; Volovici, Victor; Del Zoppo, Gregory J; Duncker, Dirk J; Dippel, Diederik W J; Boltze, Johannes; van Beusekom, Heleen M M (2022). Comparison of Large Animal Models for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Which Model to Use? Stroke, 53(4), pp. 1411-1422. American Heart Association 10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.036050

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Translation of acute ischemic stroke research to the clinical setting remains limited over the last few decades with only one drug, recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, successfully completing the path from experimental study to clinical practice. To improve the selection of experimental treatments before testing in clinical studies, the use of large gyrencephalic animal models of acute ischemic stroke has been recommended. Currently, these models include, among others, dogs, swine, sheep, and nonhuman primates that closely emulate aspects of the human setting of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Species-specific characteristics, such as the cerebrovascular architecture or pathophysiology of thrombotic/ischemic processes, significantly influence the suitability of a model to address specific research questions. In this article, we review key characteristics of the main large animal models used in translational studies of acute ischemic stroke, regarding (1) anatomy and physiology of the cerebral vasculature, including brain morphology, coagulation characteristics, and immune function; (2) ischemic stroke modeling, including vessel occlusion approaches, reproducibility of infarct size, procedural complications, and functional outcome assessment; and (3) implementation aspects, including ethics, logistics, and costs. This review specifically aims to facilitate the selection of the appropriate large animal model for studies on acute ischemic stroke, based on specific research questions and large animal model characteristics.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH) > Veterinary Anatomy

UniBE Contributor:

Stoffel, Michael Hubert


500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
600 Technology > 630 Agriculture




American Heart Association




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

21 Feb 2022 12:13

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 16:09

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

brain ischemia dogs models, animal sheep stroke swine


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