More Than Spikes: On the Added Value of Non-linear Intracranial EEG Analysis for Surgery Planning in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Müller, Michael; Dekkers, Martijn; Wiest, Roland; Schindler, Kaspar; Rummel, Christian (2022). More Than Spikes: On the Added Value of Non-linear Intracranial EEG Analysis for Surgery Planning in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Frontiers in neurology, 12, p. 741450. Frontiers Media S.A. 10.3389/fneur.2021.741450

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Epilepsy surgery can be a very effective therapy in medication refractory patients. During patient evaluation intracranial EEG is analyzed by clinical experts to identify the brain tissue generating epileptiform events. Quantitative EEG analysis increasingly complements this approach in research settings, but not yet in clinical routine. We investigate the correspondence between epileptiform events and a specific quantitative EEG marker. We analyzed 99 preictal epochs of multichannel intracranial EEG of 40 patients with mixed etiologies. Time and channel of occurrence of epileptiform events (spikes, slow waves, sharp waves, fast oscillations) were annotated by a human expert and non-linear excess interrelations were calculated as a quantitative EEG marker. We assessed whether the visually identified preictal events predicted channels that belonged to the seizure onset zone, that were later resected or that showed strong non-linear interrelations. We also investigated whether the seizure onset zone or the resection were predicted by channels with strong non-linear interrelations. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (32 of 40), epileptic spikes and the seizure onset zone predicted the resected brain tissue much better in patients with favorable seizure control after surgery than in unfavorable outcomes. Beyond that, our analysis did not reveal any significant associations with epileptiform EEG events. Specifically, none of the epileptiform event types did predict non-linear interrelations. In contrast, channels with strong non-linear excess EEG interrelations predicted the resected channels better in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and favorable outcome. Also in the small number of patients with seizure onset in the frontal and parietal lobes, no association between epileptiform events and channels with strong non-linear excess EEG interrelations was detectable. In contrast to patients with temporal seizure onset, EEG channels with strong non-linear excess interrelations did neither predict the seizure onset zone nor the resection of these patients or allow separation between patients with favorable and unfavorable seizure control. Our study indicates that non-linear excess EEG interrelations are not strictly associated with epileptiform events, which are one key concept of current clinical EEG assessment. Rather, they may provide information relevant for surgery planning in temporal lobe epilepsy. Our study suggests to incorporate quantitative EEG analysis in the workup of clinical cases. We make the EEG epochs and expert annotations publicly available in anonymized form to foster similar analyses for other quantitative EEG methods.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology

UniBE Contributor:

Müller, Michael (B), Dekkers, Martijn, Wiest, Roland Gerhard Rudi, Schindler, Kaspar Anton, Rummel, Christian


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Frontiers Media S.A.




Martin Zbinden

Date Deposited:

08 Mar 2022 17:02

Last Modified:

29 Mar 2023 23:38

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

epilepsy epilepsy surgery epileptiform events non-linear interrelations quantitative EEG




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