Biogeochemical extremes and compound events in the ocean

Gruber, Nicolas; Boyd, Philip W.; Frölicher, Thomas L.; Vogt, Meike (2021). Biogeochemical extremes and compound events in the ocean. Nature, 600(7889), pp. 395-407. Springer Nature 10.1038/s41586-021-03981-7

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The ocean is warming, losing oxygen and being acidified, primarily as a result of anthropogenic carbon emissions. With ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation projected to increase for decades, extreme events, such as marine heatwaves, will intensify, occur more often, persist for longer periods of time and extend over larger regions. Nevertheless, our understanding of oceanic extreme events that are associated with warming, low oxygen concentrations or high acidity, as well as their impacts on marine ecosystems, remains limited. Compound events—that is, multiple extreme events that occur simultaneously or in close sequence—are of particular concern, as their individual effects may interact synergistically. Here we assess patterns and trends in open ocean extremes based on the existing literature as well as global and regional model simulations. Furthermore, we discuss the potential impacts of individual and compound extremes on marine organisms and ecosystems. We propose a pathway to improve the understanding of extreme events and the capacity of marine life to respond to them. The conditions exhibited by present extreme events may be a harbinger of what may become normal in the future. As a consequence, pursuing this research effort may also help us to better understand the responses of marine organisms and ecosystems to future climate change.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Further Contribution)


08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Climate and Environmental Physics
10 Strategic Research Centers > Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR)
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute

UniBE Contributor:

Frölicher, Thomas


500 Science > 530 Physics
500 Science > 550 Earth sciences & geology




Springer Nature




Thomas Frölicher

Date Deposited:

17 Mar 2022 15:05

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 16:13

Publisher DOI:





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