SMAUG v1.0 – a user-friendly muon simulator for the imaging of geological objects in 3-D

Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Pistillo, Ciro; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Schlunegger, Fritz (2022). SMAUG v1.0 – a user-friendly muon simulator for the imaging of geological objects in 3-D. Geoscientific model development (GMD), 15(6), pp. 2441-2473. Copernicus Publications 10.5194/gmd-15-2441-2022

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Knowledge about muon tomography has spread in recent years in the geoscientific community and several collaborations between geologists and physicists have been founded. As the data analysis is still mostly done by particle physicists, much of the know-how is concentrated in particle physics and specialised geophysics institutes. SMAUG (Sim- ulation for Muons and their Applications UnderGround), a toolbox consisting of several modules that cover the various aspects of data analysis in a muon tomographic experiment, aims at providing access to a structured data analysis frame- work. The goal of this contribution is to make muon tomog- raphy more accessible to a broader geoscientific audience. In this study, we show how a comprehensive geophysical model can be built from basic physics equations. The emerging un- certainties are dealt with by a probabilistic formulation of the inverse problem, which is finally solved by a Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithm. Finally, we benchmark the SMAUG results against those of a recent study, which, however, have been established with an approach that is not easily accessi- ble to the geoscientific community. We show that they reach identical results with the same level of accuracy and preci- sion.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP)
08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geological Sciences
10 Strategic Research Centers > Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics (AEC)

UniBE Contributor:

Lechmann, Alessandro Diego, Mair, David, Ariga, Akitaka, Ariga, Tomoko, Ereditato, Antonio, Pistillo, Ciro, Scampoli, Paola, Vladymyrov, Mykhailo, Schlunegger, Fritz


500 Science > 550 Earth sciences & geology
500 Science > 530 Physics




Copernicus Publications




Fritz Schlunegger

Date Deposited:

23 Mar 2022 15:40

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 16:16

Publisher DOI:





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