EARL compliance measurements on the biograph vision Quadra PET/CT system with a long axial field of view.

Prenosil, George A; Hentschel, Michael; Weitzel, Thilo; Sari, Hasan; Shi, Kuangyu; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Rominger, Axel (2022). EARL compliance measurements on the biograph vision Quadra PET/CT system with a long axial field of view. EJNMMI Physics, 9(1), p. 26. Springer 10.1186/s40658-022-00455-1

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Our aim was to determine sets of reconstruction parameters for the Biograph Vision Quadra (Siemens Healthineers) PET/CT system that result in quantitative images compliant with the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Research Ltd. (EARL) criteria. Using the Biograph Vision 600 (Siemens Healthineers) PET/CT technology but extending the axial field of view to 106 cm, gives the Vision Quadra currently an around fivefold higher sensitivity over the Vision 600 with otherwise comparable spatial resolution. Therefore, we also investigated how the number of incident positron decays-i.e., exposure-affects EARL compliance. This will allow estimating a minimal acquisition time or a minimal applied dose in clinical scans while retaining data comparability.


We measured activity recovery curves on a NEMA IEC body phantom filled with an aqueous 18F solution and a sphere to background ratio of 10-1 according to the latest EARL guidelines. Reconstructing 3570 image sets with varying OSEM PSF iterations, post-reconstruction Gaussian filter full width at half maximum (FWHM), and varying exposure from 59 kDecays/ml (= 3 s frame duration) to 59.2 MDecays/ml (= 1 h), allowed us to determine sets of parameters to achieve compliance with the current EARL 1 and EARL 2 standards. Recovery coefficients (RCs) were calculated for the metrics RCmax, RCmean, and RCpeak, and the respective recovery curves were analyzed for monotonicity. The background's coefficient of variation (COV) was also calculated.


Using 6 iterations, 5 subsets and 7.8 mm Gauss filtering resulted in optimal EARL1 compliance and recovery curve monotonicity in all analyzed frames, except in the 3 s frames. Most robust EARL2 compliance and monotonicity were achieved with 2 iterations, 5 subsets, and 3.6 mm Gauss FWHM in frames with durations between 30 s and 10 min. RCpeak only impeded EARL2 compliance in the 10 s and 3 s frames.


While EARL1 compliance was robust over most exposure ranges, EARL2 compliance required exposures between 1.2 MDecays/ml to 11.5 MDecays/ml. The Biograph Vision Quadra's high sensitivity makes frames as short as 10 s feasible for comparable quantitative images. Lowering EARL2 RCmax limits closer to unity would possibly even permit shorter frames.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Prenosil, George; Hentschel, Michael; Weitzel, Thilo; Shi, Kuangyu; Afshar Oromieh, Ali and Rominger, Axel Oliver


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

11 Apr 2022 09:36

Last Modified:

17 Apr 2022 02:03

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

EARL Exposure Image reconstruction Long axial field of view Quantitative 18F PET/CT





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