Further characterization of Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome in females due to de novo variants in PHF6.

Gerber, Céline B; Fliedner, Anna; Bartsch, Oliver; Berland, Siren; Dewenter, Malin; Haug, Marte; Hayes, Ian; Marin-Reina, Purificacion; Mark, Paul R; Martinez-Castellano, Francisco; Maystadt, Isabelle; Karadurmus, Deniz; Steindl, Katharina; Wiesener, Antje; Zweier, Markus; Sticht, Heinrich; Zweier, Christiane (2022). Further characterization of Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome in females due to de novo variants in PHF6. Clinical genetics, 102(3), pp. 182-190. Wiley 10.1111/cge.14173

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While inherited hemizygous variants in PHF6 cause X-linked recessive Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS) in males, de novo heterozygous variants in females are associated with an overlapping but distinct phenotype, including moderate to severe intellectual disability, characteristic facial dysmorphism, dental, finger and toe anomalies and linear skin pigmentation. By personal communication with colleagues, we assembled eleven additional females with BFLS due to variants in PHF6. We confirm the distinct phenotype to include variable intellectual disability, recognizable facial dysmorphism and other anomalies. We observed skewed X-inactivation in blood and streaky skin pigmentation compatible with functional mosaicism. Variants occurred de novo in ten individuals, of whom one was only mildly affected and transmitted it to her more severely affected daughter. The mutational spectrum comprises a 2-exon deletion, five truncating, one splice-site and three missense variants, the latter all located in the PHD2 domain and predicted to severely destabilize the domain structure. This observation supports the hypothesis of more severe variants in females contributing to gender-specific phenotypes in addition to or in combination with effects of X-inactivation and functional mosaicism. Therefore, our findings further delineate the clinical and mutational spectrum of female BFLS and provide further insights into possible genotype-phenotype correlations between females and males.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Human Genetics

UniBE Contributor:

Zweier, Christiane Gertrud


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

08 Jun 2022 10:51

Last Modified:

05 Jun 2023 00:25

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome PHF6 X-chromosomal de novo





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