Antimony release and volatilization from rice paddy soils: Field and microcosm study.

Caplette, Jaime N; Gfeller, L; Lei, D; Liao, J; Xia, J; Zhang, H; Feng, X; Mestrot, Adrien (2022). Antimony release and volatilization from rice paddy soils: Field and microcosm study. The Science of the total environment, 842, p. 156631. Elsevier 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156631

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The fate of antimony (Sb) in submerged soils and the impact of common agricultural practices (e.g., manuring) on Sb release and volatilization is understudied. We investigated porewater Sb release and volatilization in the field and laboratory for three rice paddy soils. In the field study, the porewater Sb concentration (up to 107.1 μg L-1) was associated with iron (Fe) at two sites, and with pH, Fe, manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO42-) at one site. The surface water Sb concentrations (up to 495.3 ± 113.7 μg L-1) were up to 99 times higher than the regulatory values indicating a potential risk to aquaculture and rice agriculture. For the first time, volatile Sb was detected in rice paddy fields using a validated quantitative method (18.1 ± 5.2 to 217.9 ± 160.7 mg ha-1 y-1). We also investigated the influence of two common rice agriculture practices (flooding and manuring) on Sb release and volatilization in a 56-day microcosm experiment using the same soils from the field campaign. Flooding induced an immediate, but temporary, Sb release into the porewater that declined with SO42-, indicating that SO42- reduction may reduce porewater Sb concentrations. A secondary Sb release, corresponding to Fe reduction in the porewater, was observed in some of the microcosms. Our results suggest flooding-induced Sb release into rice paddy porewaters is temporary but relevant. Manuring the soils did not impact the porewater Sb concentration but did enhance Sb volatilization. Volatile Sb (159.6 ± 108.4 to 2237.5 ± 679.7 ng kg-1 y-1) was detected in most of the treatments and was correlated with the surface water Sb concentration. Our study indicates that Sb volatilization could be occurring at the soil-water interface or directly in the surface water and highlights that future works should investigate this potentially relevant mechanism.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geography

UniBE Contributor:

Caplette, Jaime Nicole, Mestrot, Adrien


900 History > 910 Geography & travel








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

14 Jun 2022 10:43

Last Modified:

20 Feb 2023 08:15

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PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Flooding Manure Rice paddy Sulfate reduction Volatile antimony Xikuangshan




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