Evaluation and optimization of novel extraction algorithms for the automatic detection of atrial activations recorded within the pulmonary veins during atrial fibrillation.

Prudat, Yann; Luca, Adrian; Yazdani, Sasan; Derval, Nicolas; Jaïs, Pierre; Roten, Laurent; Berte, Benjamin; Pruvot, Etienne; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Pascale, Patrizio (2022). Evaluation and optimization of novel extraction algorithms for the automatic detection of atrial activations recorded within the pulmonary veins during atrial fibrillation. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 22(1), p. 225. BioMed Central 10.1186/s12911-022-01969-5

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The automated detection of atrial activations (AAs) recorded from intracardiac electrograms (IEGMs) during atrial fibrillation (AF) is challenging considering their various amplitudes, morphologies and cycle length. Activation time estimation is further complicated by the constant changes in the IEGM active zones in complex and/or fractionated signals. We propose a new method which provides reliable automatic extraction of intracardiac AAs recorded within the pulmonary veins during AF and an accurate estimation of their local activation times.


First, two recently developed algorithms were evaluated and optimized on 118 recordings of pulmonary vein IEGM taken from 35 patients undergoing ablation of persistent AF. The adaptive mathematical morphology algorithm (AMM) uses an adaptive structuring element to extract AAs based on their morphological features. The relative-energy algorithm (Rel-En) uses short- and long-term energies to enhance and detect the AAs in the IEGM signals. Second, following the AA extraction, the signal amplitude was weighted using statistics of the AA sequences in order to reduce over- and undersensing of the algorithms. The detection capacity of our algorithms was compared with manually annotated activations and with two previously developed algorithms based on the Teager-Kaiser energy operator and the AF cycle length iteration, respectively. Finally, a method based on the barycenter was developed to reduce artificial variations in the activation annotations of complex IEGM signals.


The best detection was achieved using Rel-En, yielding a false negative rate of 0.76% and a false positive rate of only 0.12% (total error rate 0.88%) against expert annotation. The post-processing further reduced the total error rate of the Rel-En algorithm by 70% (yielding to a final total error rate of 0.28%).


The proposed method shows reliable detection and robust temporal annotation of AAs recorded within pulmonary veins in AF. The method has low computational cost and high robustness for automatic detection of AAs, which makes it a suitable approach for online use in a procedural context.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Cardiology

UniBE Contributor:

Roten, Laurent


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




BioMed Central




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

31 Aug 2022 11:03

Last Modified:

04 Sep 2022 02:16

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Activation detection Atrial fibrillation Biomedical signal processing Intracardiac electrograms Non-linear signal processing





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