Proposed Definition of Experimental Secondary Ischemia for Mouse Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

van Lieshout, Jasper Hans; Marbacher, Serge; Muhammad, Sajjad; Boogaarts, Hieronymus D; Bartels, Ronald H M A; Dibué, Maxine; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Kamp, Marcel A (2020). Proposed Definition of Experimental Secondary Ischemia for Mouse Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Translational stroke research, 11(5), pp. 1165-1170. Springer 10.1007/s12975-020-00796-y

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Inconsistency in outcome parameters for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) makes it difficult to compare results between mouse studies, in the same way inconsistency in outcome parameters in human studies has for long obstructed adequate comparison. The absence of an established definition may in part be responsible for the failed translational results. The present article proposes a standardized definition for DCI in experimental mouse models, which can be used as outcome measure in future animal studies. We used a consensus-building approach to propose a definition for "experimental secondary ischemia" (ESI) in experimental mouse subarachnoid hemorrhage that can be used as an outcome measure in preclinical studies. We propose that the outcome measure should be as follows: occurrence of focal neurological impairment or a general neurological impairment compared with a control group and that neurological impairment should occur secondarily following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induction compared with an initial assessment following SAH induction. ESI should not be used if the condition can be explained by general anesthesia or if other means of assessments sufficiently explain function impairment. If neurological impairment cannot reliably be evaluated, due to scientific setup. Verification of a significant secondary impairment of the cerebral perfusion compared with a control group is mandatory. This requires longitudinal examination in the same animal. The primary aim is that ESI should be distinguished from intervention-related ischemia or neurological deficits, in order establish a uniform definition for experimental SAH in mice that is in alignment with outcome measures in human studies.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > Forschungsbereich Mu50 > Forschungsgruppe Neurochirurgie

UniBE Contributor:

Marbacher, Serge


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Marceline Brodmann

Date Deposited:

27 Sep 2022 14:38

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 16:25

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Delayed cerebral ischemia Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage Outcome parameter




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