Correlation of quantitative light-induced fluorescence and qualitative visual rating in infiltrated post-orthodontic white spot lesions.

Knaup, Isabel; Kobbe, Celine; Ehrlich, Eva-Elaine; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Abou-Ayash, Bedram; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Wolf, Michael; Wierichs, Richard J (2023). Correlation of quantitative light-induced fluorescence and qualitative visual rating in infiltrated post-orthodontic white spot lesions. European journal of orthodontics, 45(2), pp. 133-141. Oxford University Press 10.1093/ejo/cjac051

[img] Text
cjac051.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to registered users only
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.

Download (1MB) | Request a copy


The aim of this prospective, clinical single-centre study was to evaluate the masking efficacy of post-orthodontic resin infiltration after 12-month follow-up and correlate quantitative and qualitative outcome measures.


Patients with completed fixed orthodontic treatment and the presence of one or more vestibular active non-cavitated white spot lesion/s (WSL) [ICDAS 1 or 2 (International Caries Detection and Assessment System)] were provided with resin infiltration 3-12 months after bracket removal. All patients (n = 31) participating before (t0) intervention were invited again and examined after 12 months (t2). Enamel demineralization was scored using quantitative light-induced fluorescence [QLF (DeltaF[flourescence], DeltaQ[lesion volume], White Spot Area)] and qualitative visual rating [11-point Likert-scale from 0 (no lesions visible on any tooth) to 10 (all teeth affected on the entire vestibular surface)].


In 17 patients (7 female and 10 male) 112 WSL (ICDAS 1: n = 1; ICDAS 2: n = 111) in 112 teeth were (re)examined. Before treatment (t0) a significant, weak (DeltaF), and moderate (DeltaQ, White Spot Area) correlation was observed between the quantitative and the qualitative rating (P < 0.002) [median DeltaF: -7.31 (-10.4/-6.58)%; DeltaQ:-2.25 (-10.8/-0.41)% mm2; White Spot Area: 0.34 (0.05/1.16) mm2; visual rating:3.7 ± 1.2]. Resin infiltration led to significantly increased fluorescence and decreased visual scores (P < 0.001) 7 days (t1) and 12 months (t2) after treatment. No significant changes based on DeltaF [-6.55 (-7.29/-6.08)%] and on visual ratings [1.0 ± 1.0] were observed between t1 and t2 (P = 1.000). After 7 days (t1) the correlation between the quantitative and the qualitative ratings remained significant, weak to moderate (P < 0.002). After 12 months (t2) the correlation was (non-)significant and weak for DeltaF, DeltaQ, and White Spot Area (P ≤ 0.097).


Since the overall masking efficacy of resin infiltration has been shown previously, an untreated control group was omitted.


When assessing the masking efficacy of infiltrated post-orthodontic WSL only a weak to moderate correlation was found between QLF values and visual ratings. Furthermore, over time this correlation decreased. Thus, it remains unclear if QLF is a viable method to assess and quantify infiltrated post-orthodontic WSL over time.


German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS-ID:DRKS00005067).

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry

UniBE Contributor:

Esteves Oliveira, Marcella, Abou-Ayash, Bedram, Meyer-Lückel, Hendrik, Wierichs, Richard Johannes


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Oxford University Press




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

03 Oct 2022 10:50

Last Modified:

02 Apr 2023 00:12

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback