Gender medicine: effects of sex and gender on cardiovascular disease manifestation and outcomes.

Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Gebhard, Catherine (2023). Gender medicine: effects of sex and gender on cardiovascular disease manifestation and outcomes. Nature reviews. Cardiology, 20(4), pp. 236-247. Nature Publishing Group 10.1038/s41569-022-00797-4

[img] Text
s41569-022-00797-4.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to registered users only
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.

Download (1MB) | Request a copy

Despite a growing body of evidence, the distinct contributions of biological sex and the sociocultural dimension of gender to the manifestations and outcomes of ischaemic heart disease and heart failure remain unknown. The intertwining of sex-based differences in genetic and hormonal mechanisms with the complex dimension of gender and its different components and determinants that result in different disease phenotypes in women and men needs to be elucidated. The relative contribution of purely biological factors, such as genes and hormones, to cardiovascular phenotypes and outcomes is not yet fully understood. Increasing awareness of the effects of gender has led to efforts to measure gender in retrospective and prospective clinical studies and the development of gender scores. However, the synergistic or opposing effects of sex and gender on cardiovascular traits and on ischaemic heart disease and heart failure mechanisms have not yet been systematically described. Furthermore, specific considerations of sex-related and gender-related factors in gender dysphoria or in heart-brain interactions and their association with cardiovascular disease are still lacking. In this Review, we summarize contemporary evidence on the distinct effects of sex and gender as well as of their interactions on cardiovascular disease and how they favourably or unfavourably influence the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment responses in patients with ischaemic heart disease or heart failure.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Cardiology

UniBE Contributor:

Gebhard, Cathérine Simone


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Nature Publishing Group




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

02 Nov 2022 09:44

Last Modified:

19 Mar 2023 00:12

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback