Translating Imaging Into 3D Printed Cardiovascular Phantoms: A Systematic Review of Applications, Technologies, and Validation.

Illi, Joël; Bernhard, Benedikt; Nguyen, Christopher; Pilgrim, Thomas; Praz, Fabien; Gloeckler, Martin; Windecker, Stephan; Haeberlin, Andreas; Gräni, Christoph (2022). Translating Imaging Into 3D Printed Cardiovascular Phantoms: A Systematic Review of Applications, Technologies, and Validation. JACC. Basic to translational science, 7(10), pp. 1050-1062. Elsevier 10.1016/j.jacbts.2022.01.002

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Translation of imaging into 3-dimensional (3D) printed patient-specific phantoms (3DPSPs) can help visualize complex cardiovascular anatomy and enable tailoring of therapy. The aim of this paper is to review the entire process of phantom production, including imaging, materials, 3D printing technologies, and the validation of 3DPSPs. A systematic review of published research was conducted using Embase and MEDLINE, including studies that investigated 3DPSPs in cardiovascular medicine. Among 2,534 screened papers, 212 fulfilled inclusion criteria and described 3DPSPs as a valuable adjunct for planning and guiding interventions (n = 108 [51%]), simulation of physiological or pathological conditions (n = 19 [9%]), teaching of health care professionals (n = 23 [11%]), patient education (n = 3 [1.4%]), outcome prediction (n = 6 [2.8%]), or other purposes (n = 53 [25%]). The most common imaging modalities to enable 3D printing were cardiac computed tomography (n = 131 [61.8%]) and cardiac magnetic resonance (n = 26 [12.3%]). The printing process was conducted mostly by material jetting (n = 54 [25.5%]) or stereolithography (n = 43 [20.3%]). The 10 largest studies that evaluated the geometric accuracy of 3DPSPs described a mean bias <±1 mm; however, the validation process was very heterogeneous among the studies. Three-dimensional printed patient-specific phantoms are highly accurate, used for teaching, and applied to guide cardiovascular therapy. Systematic comparison of imaging and printing modalities following a standardized validation process is warranted to allow conclusions on the optimal production process of 3DPSPs in the field of cardiovascular medicine.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Faculty Institutions > sitem Center for Translational Medicine and Biomedical Entrepreneurship
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Cardiology

UniBE Contributor:

Illi, Joël Alain, Bernhard, Benedikt, Pilgrim, Thomas, Praz, Fabien Daniel, Glöckler, Martin, Windecker, Stephan, Häberlin, Andreas David Heinrich, Gräni, Christoph


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

09 Nov 2022 14:05

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 16:27

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Uncontrolled Keywords:

3D printing 3D, 3-dimensional 3DPSP, 3-dimensional printed patient-specific phantom AM, additive manufacturing CCT, cardiac computed tomography CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance DICOM, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine FDM, fused deposition modeling PBF, powder bed fusion SLA, stereolithography TEE, transesophageal echocardiography VP, voxel printing additive manufacturing cardiovascular disease patient-specific phantoms personalized medicine silicone casting voxel printing




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